Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 71, Issue 9, pp 3977–3989 | Cite as

Effect of thermal stress, condensation and freezing–thawing action on the degradation of stones on the Castle of Chambord, France

  • Asaad Al-Omari
  • Xavier Brunetaud
  • Kevin Beck
  • Muzahim Al-MukhtarEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

This work consists in estimating the role of climatic conditions in the degradation of two French limestones, tuffeau and Richemont stone, used in the construction and the restoration of the Castle of Chambord, the largest castle in the Loire Valley, France. Meteorological data, air temperature, air relative humidity and rainfall were statistically analysed in combination with stone data from thermal–humidity sensors inserted into the walls. The climatic conditions of the surrounding area were described to assess their role in enhancing the degradation of the stones through three weathering processes: thermal stress, condensation and freezing–thawing. The damage risks due to the weathering processes were taken into account not only through the bulk effects on the stone surfaces, but also their effects were extended to investigate the damage that occurs within the porous structure of the stone. Field observations showed that the main patterns of degradation affecting the stones of the castle are biological colonization and stone detachment in the form of stone spalling and exfoliation. The results of the analysis show that there is no risk of damage to the stones due to thermal stress. Moreover, the two stones experience similar overall trends against freezing–thawing processes. Finally, this study clearly highlights the important role of condensation in the degradation of the stones of the castle.

Keywords

Thermal stress Condensation Freezing–thawing Weathering processes Climatic conditions Stonework 

References

  1. Altindag R, Alyildiz IS, Onargan T (2004) Mechanical property degradation of ignimbrite subjected to recurrent freeze–thaw cycles. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41:1023–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beck K, Al-Mukhtar M (2005) Multi-scale characterization of two French limestones used in historic constructions. Int J Restor Build Monum 11(4):219–226Google Scholar
  3. Bonazza A, Messina P, Sabbioni C, Grossi CM, Brimblecombe P (2009a) Mapping the impact of climate change on surface recession of carbonate buildings in Europe. Sci Total Environ 407:2039–2050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonazza A, Sabbioni C, Messina P, Guaraldi C, De Nuntiis P (2009b) Climate change impact: mapping thermal stress on Carrara marble in Europe. Sci Total Environ 407:4506–4512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brunetaud X, De Luca L, Janvier-Badosa S, Beck K, Al-Mukhtar M (2012a) Application of digital techniques in monument preservation. Eur J Environ Civil Eng 16(5):543–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brunetaud X, Stefani C, Janvier-Badosa S, Beck K, Al-Mukhtar M (2012b) Comparison between photomodelling and laser scanning to create a 3D model for a digital health record. Eur J Environ Civil Eng 16(sup1):s48–s63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Camuffo D (1998) Microclimate for cultural heritage. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  8. Camuffo D, Sturaro G (2001) The climate of Rome and its action on monument decay. Climate Res 16:145–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Freitas CR, Schmekal A (2003) Condensation as a microclimate process: measurement, numerical simulation and prediction in the Glowworm cave, New Zealand. Int J Climatol 23:557–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eklund S (2008) Stone weathering in the monastic building complex on Mountain of St Aaron in Petra, Jordan. M.Sc Thesis, University of Helsinki-FinlandGoogle Scholar
  11. Hoxha D, Do D, Belayachi N (2010) A fully coupled thermo-hydro mechanical analysis of the impact of temperature and humidity variation on the state of historical stone buildings. In: 8th international symposium on the conservation of monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, PatrasGoogle Scholar
  12. Janvier-Badosa S, Beck K, Brunetaud X, Al-Mukhtar M (2010) Characterization of stone weathering: A case study for Chambord Castle, France. In: 8th international symposium on the conservation of monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, PatrasGoogle Scholar
  13. Janvier-Badosa S, Beck K, Brunetaud X, Al-Mukhtar M (2013) Historical study of Chambord Castle: basis for establishing the monument health record. Int J Archit Herit 7:247–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Moropoulou A, Theoulakis P, Chrysophakis T (1995) Correlation between stone weathering and environmental factors in marine atmosphere. Atmos Eng 29:895–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mutlutürk M, Altindag R, Türkc G (2004) A decay function model for the integrity loss of rock when subjected to recurrent cycles of freezing–thawing and heating–cooling. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41:237–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ponziani D, Ferrero E, Appolonia L, Migliorini S (2012) Effects of temperature and humidity excursions and wind exposure on the arch of Augustus in Aosta. J Cult Herit 13:462–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pope GA, Meierding TC, Paradise TR (2002) Geomorphology’s role in the study of weathering of cultural stone. Geomorphology 47:211–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Tan X, Chen W, Yang J, Cao J (2011) Laboratory investigation on the mechanical properties degradation of granite under freeze–thaw action. Cold Reg Sci Technol 68:130–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Van TT, Beck K, Al-Mukhtar M (2007) Accelerated weathering tests on two highly porous limestones. Environ Geol 52(2):283–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Viles HA (2005) Microclimate and weathering in the central Namib Desert, Namibia. Geomorphology 67:189–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Warke PA, Smith BJ (1998) Effect of direct and indirect heating on the validity of rock weathering simulation studies and durability tests. Geomorphology 22:347–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Yavuz H, Altindag R, Sarac S, Ugur I, Sengun N (2006) Estimating the index properties of deteriorated carbonate rocks due to freeze–thaw and thermal shock weathering. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 43:767–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Yavuz H, Demirdag S, Caran S (2010) Thermal effect on the physical properties of carbonate rocks. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 47:94–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asaad Al-Omari
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xavier Brunetaud
    • 1
  • Kevin Beck
    • 1
  • Muzahim Al-Mukhtar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Universite d’Orléans, CNRS, CRMD FRE 3520Orleans Cedex 2France
  2. 2.Department of Civil Engineering, College of EngineeringMosul UniversityMosulIraq

Personalised recommendations