Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 71, Issue 4, pp 1925–1936 | Cite as

Hydrodynamic behavior of Kangan gas-capped deep confined aquifer in Iran

  • Arash Nadri
  • Rahim Bagheri
  • Ezzat Raeisi
  • Seyyed Shahaboddin Ayatollahi
  • Kamal Bolandparvaz-Jahromi
Original Article


The Kangan aquifer (KA) is located beneath the Kangan gas reservoir (KGR), 2,885 m below the ground surface. The gas reservoir formations are classified into nine non-gas reservoir units and eight gas reservoir units based on the porosity, water and gas saturation, lithology, and gas production potential using the logs of 36 production wells. The gas reservoir units are composed of limestone and dolomite, whereas the non-gas reservoir units consist of compacted limestone and dolomite, gypsum and shale. The lithology of KA is the same as KGR with a total dissolved solid of 333,000 mg/l. The source of aquifer water is evaporated seawater. The static pressure on the Gas–Water Contact (GWC) was 244 atm before gas production, but it has continuously decreased during 15 years of gas production, resulting in a 50 m uprising of the GWC and the expansion of KA water and intergranular water inside the gas reservoir. The general flow direction of the KA is toward the northern coast of the Persian Gulf due to the migration of water to the overlying formations via a trust fault. The KA is a gas-capped deep confined aquifer (GCDCA) with special characteristics differing from a shallow confined aquifer. The main characteristics of a GCDCA are unsaturated intergranular water below the confining layers, no direct contact of the water table (GWC) with the confining layers, no vertical flow via the cap rock, permanent uprising of the GWC during gas production, and permanent descend of GWC during water exploitation.


Gas-capped deep aquifer Kangan gas reservoir Hydrodynamics Formation water Gas water contact Flow direction 



The authors extend their appreciation to the South Zagros Oil and Gas Company of Iran for the financial support of this study. The authors also thank A. Montaseri, M. Mirbagheri, H.R. Nasriani, Sh. Karimi and A.A. Nikandish, all from the South Zagros Oil and Gas Company, and Dr. A. Shariati and M. Escrochi from Shiraz University for their assistance in data acquisition, field work and extensive discussions on the characteristics of the Kangan Gas Reservoir. The authors also thank the Research Council of Shiraz University for continuous support during this investigation.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arash Nadri
    • 1
  • Rahim Bagheri
    • 1
  • Ezzat Raeisi
    • 1
  • Seyyed Shahaboddin Ayatollahi
    • 2
  • Kamal Bolandparvaz-Jahromi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Earth Sciences, College of SciencesShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  2. 2.Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, College of EngineeringShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  3. 3.South Zagros Oil and Gas CompanyIranian Oil CompanyShirazIran

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