Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 68, Issue 8, pp 2253–2261 | Cite as

Measurement and estimation of the summertime daily evapotranspiration on alpine meadow in the Qilian Mountains, northwest China

  • Yong YangEmail author
  • Rensheng Chen
  • Chuntan Han
  • Wenwu Qing
Original Article

Abstract

Research on mountain evapotranspiration (ET) is important to help understand water cycling and predict streamflow in cold regions in China. Actual daily ET was measured in two types of micro-lysimeters with depth 40 cm and diameter 31.5 cm (A) and depth 27 cm and diameter 27 cm (B), from 1 July 2007 to 10 September 2007, on an alpine meadow in the Qilian Mountains in northwest China, where Bowen ratio measuring instrument and eddy covariance system are too costly and difficult to be built in the region. The results of micro-lysimeters were used as a way to calibrate and test a number of energy balance methods and determine the pan coefficient (K p) for a mountainous site. The results indicate that the FAO-56 Penman–Monteith offers the best performance, with RMSE of 0.61 mm day−1, MAD of 0.46 mm day−1, and the index of agreement near 1, followed by ASCE Penman–Monteith, Priestley–Taylor and Hargreaves–Samani, and the K p is estimated as 0.7 for the summertime.

Keywords

Evapotranspiration Micro-lysimeter Penman–Monteith Priestley–Taylor Hargreaves–Samani Pan coefficient 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 40771045 and 40401012).

References

  1. Alexandris S, Kerkides P, Liakatas A (2006) Daily reference evapotranspiration estimates by the “Copais” approach. Agric Water Manag 82:371–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M (1998) Crop evapotranspiration—guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  3. Benli B, Kodal S, Ilbeyi A, Ustun H (2006) Determination of evapotranspiration and basal crop coefficient of alfalfa with a weighing lysimeter. Agric Water Manag 81:358–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen DL, Gao G, Xu CY, Guo J, Ren GY (2005) Comparison of the Thornthwaite method and pan data with the standard Penman–Monteith estimates of reference evapotranspiration in China. Clim Res 28:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen RS, Kang ES, Ji XB, Yang JP, Yang Y (2006) Cold regions in China. Cold Reg Sci Technol 45:95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Daamen CC, Simmonds LP, Wallace JS (1993) Use of lysimeters to measure evaporation from sandy soils. Agric Forest Meteorol 65:159–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gavin H, Agnew CA (2004) Modelling actual, reference and equilibrium evaporation from a temperate wet grassland. Hydrol Proc 18:229–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gupta PL, Sastry PSN (1986) Estimating evapotranspiration from midday canopy temperature. Irrig Sci 7:237–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hargreaves GH, Samani ZA (1985) Reference crop evapotranspiration from temperature. Appl Eng Agric 1:96–99Google Scholar
  10. Irmak S, Haman D, Jones W (2002) Evaluation of class A pan coefficients for estimating reference evapotranspiration in humid location. J Irrig Drain Eng 128:153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jong C (2005) The contribution of condensation to the water cycle under high-mountain conditions. Hydrol Proc 19:2419–2435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kang ES, Chen RS, Zhang ZH, Ji XB, Jin BW (2008) Some problems facing hydrological and ecological researches in the mountain watershed at the upper stream of an inland river basin. Adv Earth Sci 23:675–681 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  13. Lascano RJ, Van Bavel CHM (1986) Simulation and measurement of evaporation from a bare soil. Soil Sci Am J 50:1127–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Liu YJ, Luo Y (2010) A consolidated evaluation of the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach using the lysimeter data in the North China Plain. Agric Water Manag 97:31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Martin DL, Wehner DL, Throssell CS (1994) Models for predicting the lower limit of the canopy–air temperature difference of two cool season grasses. Crop Sci 34:192–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Matsumoto K, Ohta T, Nakai T, Kuwada T, Daikoku K, Iida S, Yabuki H, Kononov AV, der Molen MK, Kodama Y, Maximov TC, Dolman AJ, Hattori S (2008) Energy consumption and evapotranspiration at several boreal and temperate forests in the Far East. Agric Forest Meteorol 148:1978–1989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McVicar TR, Niel TGV, Li LT, Hutchinson MF, Mu XM, Liu ZH (2007) Spatially distributing monthly reference evapotranspiration and pan evaporation considering topographic influences. J Hydrol 338:196–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ni J (2002) Carbon storage in grasslands of China. J Arid Environ 50:205–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Paço TA, Ferreira MI, Conceição N (2006) Peach orchard evapotranspiration in a sandy soil: comparison between eddy covariance measurements and estimates by the FAO 56 approach. Agric Water Manag 85:305–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pauwels RNV, Samson R (2006) Comparison of different methods to measure and model actual evapotranspiration rates for a wet sloping grassland. Agric Water Manag 82:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Priestley CHB, Taylor RJ (1972) On the assessment of surface heat flux and evaporation using large-scale parameters. Mon Weather Rev 100:81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Raddatz RL, Papakyriakou TN, Swystun KA, Tenuta M (2009) Evapotranspiration from a wetland tundra sedge fen: surface resistance of peat for land-surface schemes. Agric Forest Meteorol 149:851–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rahimikhoob A (2009) An evaluation of common pan coefficient equations to estimate reference evapotranspiration in a subtropical climate (north of Iran). Irrig Sci 27:289–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shawcroft RW, Gardner HR (1983) Direct evaporation from soil under a row crop canopy. Agric Meteorol 28:229–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Si JH, Feng Q, Zhang XY, Liu W, Su YH, Zhang YW (2005) Growing season evapotranspiration from Tamarix ramosissimastands under extreme arid conditions in northwest China. Environ Geol 48:861–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Snyder RL (1992) Equation for evaporation pan to evapotranspiration conversions. J Irrig Drain Eng 118:977–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Song KC, Kang ES, Jin BW, Zhang ZH (2004) An experimental study of grassland evapotranspiration in the mountain watershed of the Hei River Basin. J Glaciol Geocryol 26:349–356 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  28. Sugimoto A, Naito D, Yanagisawa N, Ichiyanagi Y, Kurita N, Kubota J, Kotake T, Ohata T, Maximov T, Fedorov AV (2003) Characteristics of soil moisture in permafrost observed in East Siberian taiga with stable isotopes of water. Hydrol Proc 17:1073–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Thomas A (2008) Development and properties of 0.25-degree gridded evapotranspiration data fields of China for hydrological studies. J Hydrol 358:145–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Thornthwaite CW, Mather JR (1951) The role of evapotranspiration in climate. Theor Appl Climatol 3:16–39Google Scholar
  31. Walter IA, Allen RG, Elliott R, Itenfisu D, Brown P, Jensen ME, Mecham B, Howell TA, Snyder R, Eching S, Spofford T, Hattendorf M, Martin D, Cuenca RH, Wright JL (2005) The ASCE standardized reference evapotranspiration equation. Final report (ASCE–EWRI). Pr. In: Allen RG, Walter IA, Elliott R, Howell T, Itenfisu D, Jensen M. (Eds.), Environmental and Water Resources Institute, 2005. Task Committee on standardization of reference evapotranspiration of the Environmental and Water Resources InstituteGoogle Scholar
  32. Xie CW, Ding YJ, Liu SY, Wang GX (2003) Comparison analysis of runoff change in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers. J Glaciol Geocryol 25(4):414–422 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  33. Xu CY, Gong LB, Jiang T, Chen DL (2006) Analysis of spatial distribution and temporal trend of reference evapotranspiration and pan evaporation in Changjiang (Yangtze River) catchment. J Hydrol 327:81–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yang ZN, Liu XR, Zeng QZ (2000) Hydrology in cold regions of China (in Chinese). Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang YS, Ohata T, Kang ES, Yao TD (2003) Observation and estimation of evaporation from the ground surface of the cryosphere in eastern Asia. Hydrol Proc 17:1135–1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhou L, Zhou G (2009) Measurement and modelling of evapotranspiration over a reed (Phragmites australis) marsh in Northeast China. J Hydrol 372:41–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yong Yang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rensheng Chen
    • 1
  • Chuntan Han
    • 1
  • Wenwu Qing
    • 1
  1. 1.Heihe Upstream Watershed Ecology-Hydrology Experimental Research StationCold and Arid Region Environment and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of SciencesLanzhouChina

Personalised recommendations