Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 68, Issue 4, pp 1015–1032 | Cite as

Subsurface structural trends of the offshore Nile Delta area, Egypt: evidences from gravity and magnetic data

Original Article

Abstract

Subsurface structural trends and tectonics affecting the offshore Nile Delta area, Egypt, have been studied through the interpretations of gravity and magnetic data. Reduced to the pole, regional–residual separation, Tilt derivative and Euler deconvolution techniques are applied for the processing and interpretations of the magnetic and gravity data. The average depth of the sedimentary cover, estimated from the two-dimensional power spectrum technique ranges between 8 km and 13 km. The interpretation of the gravity and magnetic data indicates that the study area is affected by many subsurface structural trends. The NW–SE is the major trend related to El-Temsah and Misfaq-Bardwil trend. The NE–SW direction is the second dominant trend, related to the Rosetta trend. Other trends defined through the interpretation of gravity and magnetic data include: the N–S direction, related to the Baltim fault trend, the E–W direction, related to the Neogene hinge line and the NNE–SSW related to the Gulf of Aqaba. Accessory trends include the ENE–WSW, WNW–ESE and finally the NNW–SSW.

Keywords

Magnetic Gravity Euler deconvolution Power spectrum Tilt derivative 

References

  1. Abdel Aal A, Lelek JJ (1994) Structural development of the northern Sinai, Egypt, and its implication on hydrocarbon prospectively of the Mesozoic. In: Al-Husseini MI (ed) selected middle conference, Geo. 94. Gulf Petrolink, Bahrain, Geoarabia 1, pp 15–30Google Scholar
  2. Abdel Aal A, El Barkouky A, Gerrits M, Zaki H (2000) Tectonic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean basin and its significance for hydrocarbon prospectivity of the Nile Delta ultra deep water area. MOC Proc., Alexandria, pp 717–754Google Scholar
  3. Abu El, Ata AS (1988) The relation between the local tectonics of Egypt and plate tectonics of the surrounding regions using geophysical and geological data, E.G.S., In: Proceeding of the 6th Ann. meet., pp 92–112Google Scholar
  4. Affleck J (1963) Magnetic anomaly trend and spacing pattern. Geophysics 28:237–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allan TD, Morelli C (1971) A geophysical study of the Mediterranean Sea. Boll Geofis Teor Appl XIII(50):99–142Google Scholar
  6. Almagor G (1993) Continental slope processes off northern Israel and southernmost Lebanon and their relation to onshore tectonics. Geology 112:51–169Google Scholar
  7. Baranov V (1959) A new method for interpretation of the aeromagnetic maps: pseudo-gravimetric anomalies. Geophysics 22(2):359–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barbosa VC, Silva JB, Medeiros WE (1999) Stability analysis and improvement of structural index estimation in Euler deconvolution. Geophysics 64:48–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ben-Avraham Z (1989) Multiple opening and closing of the eastern Mediterranean and south China basin. Tectonics 8:351–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ben-Avraham Z, Mart Y (1981) Late tertiary structure and stratigraphy of the North sinai continental margin. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 65:1135–1145Google Scholar
  11. Ben-Avraham Z, Shoham Y, Ginzburg A (1976) Magnetic anomalies in the Eastern Mediterranean and the tectonic setting of the Eratosthenes Seamount. Geophy J Res Astronom Soc 45:105–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ben-Avraham Z, Ginzburg A, Makris J, Eppelbaum L (2002) Crustal structure of the Levant Basin, eastern Mediterranean. Tectonophysics 346:23–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bird D (1997) Interpretation magnetic data: geophysical corner, explorer, AAPG and SEG, May 1997Google Scholar
  14. Cooper GR, Cowan DR (2006) Enhancing potential field data using filters based on the local phase. Comput Geosci 32:1585–1591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Derin B, Reiss Z (1973) Revision of marine Neogene stratigraphy in Israel. Israel J Earth Sci 22:199–210Google Scholar
  16. Doherty M, Jamieson T, Kileni T, Trayner P (1988) The geology and seismic stratigraphy of the offshore Nile Delta. Ninth petroleum exploration and production conference, the Egyptian general petroleum corporation 2, pp 408–426Google Scholar
  17. Dolson JC, Boucher PJ, Shann MV (2000) Exploration potential in the offshore Mediterranean, Egypt: perspectives from the context of Egypt’s future resources and business challenges. EAGE Conference on geology and petroleum geology, MaltaGoogle Scholar
  18. El Banna MM, Frihy OE (2009) Natural and anthropogenic influences in the northeastern coast of the Nile delta Egypt. Environ Geol 57(7):1593–1602. doi:10.1007/s00254-008-1434-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. El Heiny I, Morsi S (1992) Stratigraphic correlation of the Neogene sediments in the eastern Nile Delta and Gulf of Suez, Egypt. EGPC, 11th Pet. Expl. Prod., 1, Cairo, pp 166–192Google Scholar
  20. El-Asmar HM, Hereher ME (2011) Change detection of the coastal zone east of the Nile Delta using remote sensing. Environ Earth Sci 62(4):769–777. doi:10.1007/s12665-010-0564-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. El-Nahry AH, Doluschitz R (2010) Climate change and its impacts on the coastal zone of the Nile Delta, Egypt. Environ Earth Sci 59(7):1497–1506. doi:10.1007/s12665-009-0135-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ergqn M, Okay S, Sari C, Oral EZ, Ash M, Hall J, Miller H (2005) Gravity anomalies of the Cyprus Arc and their tectonic implications. Mar Geol 221:349–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fairhead JD, Green CM, Verduzco B, Mackenzie C (2004) A new set of magnetic field derivatives for mapping mineral prospects. 17th ASEG Geophysical Conference and Exhibition, Sydney, Australia, Expanded AbstractsGoogle Scholar
  24. Finetti I, Morelli C (1973) Geohysical exploration of the Mediterranean Sea. Bull Geofis Teor Appl 60:263–341Google Scholar
  25. Folkman Y, Assael R (1980) Magnetic map of the Southeastern Mediterranean sea. Institute for petroleum Research and Geophysics and Isreal National Oil Company, Scale 1: 250,000, Cassini-Soldner Projection, 10 gamma contours, sea level datum. Survey of Isreal, Tel Aviv, I sheetGoogle Scholar
  26. Frihy OE, Deabes EA, Shereet SA, Abdalla FA (2010) Alexandria-Nile Delta coast, Egypt: update and future projection of relative sea-level rise. Environ Earth Sci 61(2):253–273. doi:10.1007/s12665-009-0340-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gardosh M, Druckman Y (2006) Seismic stratigraphy, structure and tectonic evolution of the Levantine Basin, offshore Israel. In: Robertson AHF, Mountrakis D (eds) Tectonic Development of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Geological Society, London, 260, pp 201–227 (Spec. Publ)Google Scholar
  28. Gardosh M, Druckman Y, Buchbinder B, Rybakov M (2008) The Levant Basin offshore Israel: stratigraphy, structure, tectonic evolution and implications for hydrocarbon exploration. GII Report 429/218/06 Report GSI/14/2006, pp 1–121Google Scholar
  29. Garfunkel Z (1998) Constraints on the origin and history of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin. Tectonophysics 298:5–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Garfunkel Z (2004) Origin of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin: a reevaluation. Tectonophysics 391:11–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Garfunkel Z, Derin B (1984) Permian-early Mesozoic tectonism and continental margin formation in Israel and its implications to the history of the eastern Mediterranean. In: Dixon JE, Robertson AHF (eds) The geological evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean. Geological Society, London, 17 pp 18–201 (Spec. Publ)Google Scholar
  32. Gaullier V, Mart Y, Bellaiche G, Mascle J (1999) Salt response to the Nile deep-sea fan thin-skinned tectonics and to the convergent: geodynamics in eastern Mediterranean Sea. Terra Nova Abstr 11:760Google Scholar
  33. Gaullier V, Mart Y, Bellaiche G, Mascle J, Vendville B, Zitter T (2000) Salt tectonics in and around the Nile deep-sea fan: insights from the PRISMED II cruise. Geol Soc Lond Spec Pub 174:11–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ginzburg A, Gvirtzman A (1979) Changes in crust and in the sedimentary cover across the transition from the Arabian platform to the Mediterranean Basin: evidence from seismic refraction and sedimentary studies in Israel and Sinai. J Sed Geol 23:19–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hall J, Calon TJ, Aksu AE, Meade SR (2005) Structural evolution of the latakia ridge and Cyprus basin at front of the Cyprus Arc, Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Mar Geol 221:261–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harrison R, Newell W, Batıhanll H, Panayides I, McGeehin J, Mahan S, Őzhűr A, Tsiolakis E, Necdet M (2004) Tectonic framework and late Cenozoic tectonic history of the northern part of Cyprus: implications for earthquake hazards and regional tectonics. J Asian Earth Sci 23:191–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (1981/1987) International Bathymetric Chart of the Mediterranean. Series established under the Cooperative Investigations in the Mediterranean (C.I.M.), Mercator Projection. Scale 1: 1,000,000 at 380 N latitude. 10 sheets with heights and depths in meters, published by the Head Department of Navigation and Oceanography, Ministry of Defence, Leningrad, USSR, under the authority of IOC (UNESCO), 1st Edition, June 1981. Single sheet at 1: 5,000,000 scale published in 1987Google Scholar
  38. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (1988/1989) Bouguer Gravity Anomalies (IBCM-G) International Bathymetric Chart of the Mediterranean, Geological – Geophysical Series established with the assistance of the International Commission for the Scientific Exploartion of The Mediterranean Sea. Mercator Projection. Scale 1: 1,000,000 at 380 N latitude. 10 sheets with Bouguer anomalies in 10 mGal contours, 50 mGal tints, 1967 normal gravity formula, 2. 67 g/cm3 Bouguer density, and terrain corrections for land stations in sheet 4,5,9 and 10 to 167 km height and depths in meters, published by the Head Department of Navigation and Oceanography, Ministry of Defence, Leningrad, USSR, under the authority of IOC (UNESCO), Preliminary Edition, 1988. Single sheet at 1: 5,000,000 scale published in April 1989Google Scholar
  39. Jiménez-Munt I, Sabadini R, Gardi A, Bianco G (2003) Active deformation in the Mediterranean from Gibraltar to Anatolia inferred from numerical modeling and geodetic and seismological data. J Geophys Res 108:2006pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kempler D, Garfunkel Z (1994) Structures and kinematics in the northeastern Mediterranean: a study of an unusual plate boundary. Tectonophysics 234:19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kempler D, Mart Y, Herut B, McCoy F (1996) Diapiric structures in the southeastern Mediterranean Sea: possible indication of extension I a zone of incipient collision. Mar Geol 134:237–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kenyon NH, Stride AH, Belderson RH (1975) Plan view of active faults and other features on the lower Nile Cone. Geol Soc Am Bull 86:1733–1739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lahti I, Karinen T (2010) Tilt derivative multiscale edges of magnetic data. Lead Edge 29:24–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Makris J (1977) Geophysical investigation of Hellenides. Hamburger geophys Einzelschr. 34:124Google Scholar
  45. Makris J, Wang J (1994) Bouguer gravity anomalies of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. In: Krasheninnikov VA, Hall JK (eds) Geological structure of the Northeastern Mediterranean. Jerusalem, pp 87–98Google Scholar
  46. Makris J, Ben-Avraham Z, Behle A, Ginzburg A, Giese P, Steinmetz L, Whitmarsh RB, Eleftheriou S (1983) Seismic refraction profiles between Cyprus and Israel and their interpretation. Geophys J Roy Astron Soc 75:575–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Makris J, Wang J, Odintsov S, Udintsev G (1994) The magnetic field of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea In: Krasheninnikov VA, Hall JK (eds) Geological Structures of the Northeastern Mediterranean, Jerusalem, pp 75–85Google Scholar
  48. Mart Y (1984) The tectonic regime of the southeastern Mediterranean continental margin. Mar Geol 55:365–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mascle J, Benkhelil J, Bellaiche G, Zitter T, Woodside J, Loncke L (2000) Marine geologic evidence for a Levantine-Sinai plate, a missing piece of the Mediterranean puzzle. Geology 228:779–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mascle J, Camera L, Chamot-Rooke N, Costis C, Gaullier V, Loncke L, Nielsen C, Operto S, Ribodetti A, Sage F, Sallares V, Schenini L (2003) New constraints on the deep structure of the eastern Mediterranean sea from new MCS seismic reflection data: EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly. ISSN: 1029–7006, abstract number: EAE03-A-09172Google Scholar
  51. Miller HG, Singh V (1994) Potential field tilt: a new concept for location of potential field sources. J Appl Geophys 32:213–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ministere de la Geologie de l’USSR (1981) Magnetic map of the Eastern Mediterranean SeaGoogle Scholar
  53. Omran MA, Ismail A, Selim EI (2001) Crustal modeling of North Sinai and Southeastern Mediterranean area. The 2nd International Symposium on Geophysics. Tanta University, pp 381–387Google Scholar
  54. Omran MA, Ismail A, Selim EI (2002) Magnetic modeling of North Sinai and Southeastern Mediterranean area. Analas of Geological survey of Egypt, xxv, pp 401–415Google Scholar
  55. Papazachos BC, Papaioannou ChA (1999) Lithospheric boundaries and plate motions in the Cyprus area. Tectonophysics 308:193–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ravat D (1996) Analysis of the Euler method and its applicability in environmental magnetic investigations. J Environ Eng Geophys 1:229–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Reid AB, Allsop JM, Granser H, Millett AJ (1990) Somerton, magnetic interpretation in three dimensions using Euler deconvolution. Geophysics 55:80–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rizzini A, Vezzani F, Milad G (1978) Stratigraphy and sedimentation of a Neogene Quaternary section in the Nile Delta area. Mar Geol 27:327–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Robertson AHF (1998) Tectonic significance of the Eratosthenes Seamount: a continental fragment in the process of collision with a subduction zone in the eastern Mediterranean (ocean drilling program leg 160). Tectonophysics 29:863–882Google Scholar
  60. Ross D, Uchupi Z (1977) The structure and sedimentary history of southeastern Mediterranean Sea: Nile Cone area. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 61(6):872–902Google Scholar
  61. Salem R (1976) Evolution of Eocene–Miocene sedimentation patterns in parts of northern Egypt. Bull Am Assoc Pet Geol 60(1):34–64Google Scholar
  62. Salem A, Williams S, Fairhead JD, Ravat D, Smith R (2007) Tilt-depth method, a simple depth estimation method using first-order magnetic derivatives. SEG Leading Edge 26/12:1502–1505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Salem A, Williams S, Fairhead D, Smith R, Ravat D (2008) Interpretation of magnetic data using tilt-angle derivatives. Geophysics 73:L1–L10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Selim EI (2002) The use of the geophysical methods to study the subsurface structure in the southeastern Mediterranean and North Sinai region. (M.Sc. Thesis), Faculty of Science, Mansoura UniversityGoogle Scholar
  65. Selim EI (2006) Seismic stratigraphy and tectonic history of the Egyptian continental margin, the area offshore Bardawil lake to Damietta fan. (Ph.D. Thesis), Faculty of Science at Damietta, Mansoura UniversityGoogle Scholar
  66. Selim EI, Omran MA (2012) Characteristic features of salt tectonics offshore North Sinai, Egypt. Arab J Geosci. 5:371–383 doi:10.1007/s12517-010-0192-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Spector A, Grant F (1970) Statistical models for interpreting aeromagnetic data. Geophysics 35:293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. The Geological Survey of Cyprus (1969) Aeromagnetic map of Cyprus Survey conducted by Hunting Survey, described by Gass (1968) Phil Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A225, 417 and Vine et al. (1973). Nature Physics Science 244, pp 34–38Google Scholar
  69. Thompson DT (1982) EULDEPTH; a new technique for making computer assisted depth from magnetic data. Geophysics 47:31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Verduzco B, Fairhead JD, Green CM, Mackenzie C (2004) New insights into magnetic derivatives for structural mapping. Lead Edge 23:116–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Vidal N, Klaeschen D, Kopf A, Docherty C, Von Huene R, Krasheninnikov VA (2000) Seismic images at the convergence zone from south of Cyprus to the Syrian coast, eastern Mediterranean. Tectonophysics 329:157–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Woodside JM (1977) Tectonic elements and Crust of the eastern Mediterranean Sea: marine geophysical research 3:317–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Woodside JM, Williams SA (1977) Geophysical data report of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. RRS Shackleton Cruises 3/72,5/72,1/74 Cambridge University, Department of Geodesy and Geophysics, p 238Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geology Department, Faculty of Science at DamiettaMansoura UniversityDamietta BranchEgypt

Personalised recommendations