Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 67, Issue 4, pp 1121–1130 | Cite as

Copper, lead and cadmium concentrations in surface water, sediment and fish, C. Carpio, samples from Lake Naivasha: effect of recent anthropogenic activities

  • T. M. Mutia
  • M. Z. Virani
  • W. N. Moturi
  • B. Muyela
  • W. J. Mavura
  • J. O. Lalah
Original Article


Following recent concerns of chemical pollution around Lake Naivasha, especially originating from recent agricultural activities in the catchment, samples of water, sediments, and fish Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from the Hippo Point, Kasarani, Mouth of Malewa River, Mouth of Karati River, Crescent Island, Sher Karuturi Discharge outlet and Oserian Bay for analysis of Cu, Cd and Pb by FAAS. The mean heavy metal levels ranged from 5.12–58.11 (Pb), 1.06–1.73 (Cd), and <0.03–2.29 (Cu) mg/kg wet weight in C. carpio muscle, <100–179.83 (Pb), <10.00–10.06 (Cd) and <30.00–32.33 (Cu) μg/L in surface water, and 17.11–53.07 (Pb), 1.18–5.58 (Cd) and 3.00–8.48 (Cu) mg/kg dry weight in sediment and showed a wide variation within and between samples with relatively high concentrations in sediments and fish muscle tissues. The results indicate that Lake Naivasha, in some parts, is polluted with these heavy metals of which relatively higher concentrations are found at the discharge outlets near Sher Karuturi and Oserian Bay. This indicates possible contribution from surrounding horticultural/floricultural activities and the Mouths of the Rivers Malewa and Karati which flow from it’s upper catchment.


Heavy metals Lake Naivasha Catchment Sources 



This study was kindly funded by The Peregrine Fund, through the Africa Project. Many thanks are also due to Dr Peter Njoroge of the National Museums of Kenya, Messrs Ireri and Muchai and Ms Ruth Mwarabu of the Naivasha District Fisheries office, Mr Dalmas Oyugi of KWSTI, George of KEMFRI, Mr Inyanje and Kerina of KenGen. We also thank Mr Misoi of Egerton University, colleagues Melissa Babich and Luis Franco and GDC management for facilitating this study in one way or another.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. M. Mutia
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. Z. Virani
    • 3
    • 4
  • W. N. Moturi
    • 1
  • B. Muyela
    • 5
  • W. J. Mavura
    • 6
  • J. O. Lalah
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceEgerton UniversityEgertonKenya
  2. 2.Geothermal Development Company LimitedNakuruKenya
  3. 3.The Peregrine FundBoiseUSA
  4. 4.Ornithology Section, Department of ZoologyNational Museum of KenyaNairobiKenya
  5. 5.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyEgerton UniversityEgertonKenya
  6. 6.Department of ChemistryJomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and TechnologyNairobiKenya
  7. 7.Department of Chemical Science and TechnologyKenya Polytechnic University CollegeNairobiKenya

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