Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 66, Issue 5, pp 1487–1496 | Cite as

An experimental study on the remediation of phenanthrene in soil using ultrasound and soil washing

  • Weikun Song
  • Jianbing LiEmail author
  • Wen Zhang
  • Xuan Hu
  • Ling Wang
Original Article


A series of laboratory experiments were carried out in this study to investigate the remediation of phenanthrene contaminated soil using ultrasound and soil washing. The results indicated that ultrasound and soil washing could significantly enhance the remediation efficiency of each other. The performance of the combined ultrasonic and soil washing process was then investigated, and the impacts of four experimental variables including the initial concentration of phenanthrene in soil, sonication time, pH of washing solution, and washing flow rate were examined using an orthogonal experimental design method. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of experimental results revealed that the initial phenanthrene concentration, sonication time and soil washing flow rate showed significant effects (P ≤ 0.05) on the remediation efficiency. A pseudo-first-order kinetics model was developed for describing the remediation process, and a maximum remediation efficiency of 69.5% was observed in the study after 20 min of treatment under the experimental conditions. Therefore, the results indicate that the combined ultrasonic and soil washing process could represent a promising technology for the effective remediation of phenanthrene contaminated soil.


Phenanthrene Soil remediation Soil washing Ultrasound 



This study has been supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada and Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 8102032). The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions that helped in improving the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Weikun Song
    • 1
  • Jianbing Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Wen Zhang
    • 1
  • Xuan Hu
    • 3
  • Ling Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Sino-Canada Research Academy of Energy and Environmental StudiesNorth China Electric Power UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Environmental Engineering ProgramUniversity of Northern British ColumbiaPrince GeorgeCanada
  3. 3.College of Environmental Sciences and EngineeringPeking UniversityBeijingChina

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