Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 66, Issue 5, pp 1487–1496 | Cite as

An experimental study on the remediation of phenanthrene in soil using ultrasound and soil washing

  • Weikun Song
  • Jianbing LiEmail author
  • Wen Zhang
  • Xuan Hu
  • Ling Wang
Original Article

Abstract

A series of laboratory experiments were carried out in this study to investigate the remediation of phenanthrene contaminated soil using ultrasound and soil washing. The results indicated that ultrasound and soil washing could significantly enhance the remediation efficiency of each other. The performance of the combined ultrasonic and soil washing process was then investigated, and the impacts of four experimental variables including the initial concentration of phenanthrene in soil, sonication time, pH of washing solution, and washing flow rate were examined using an orthogonal experimental design method. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of experimental results revealed that the initial phenanthrene concentration, sonication time and soil washing flow rate showed significant effects (P ≤ 0.05) on the remediation efficiency. A pseudo-first-order kinetics model was developed for describing the remediation process, and a maximum remediation efficiency of 69.5% was observed in the study after 20 min of treatment under the experimental conditions. Therefore, the results indicate that the combined ultrasonic and soil washing process could represent a promising technology for the effective remediation of phenanthrene contaminated soil.

Keywords

Phenanthrene Soil remediation Soil washing Ultrasound 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study has been supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada and Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 8102032). The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions that helped in improving the manuscript.

References

  1. Ahn CK, Woo SH, Park JM (2010) Surface solubilization of phenanthrene by surfactant sorbed on soils with different organic matter contents. J Hazard Mater 177(1–3):799–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bettahar M, Schafer G, Baviere M (1999) An optimized surfactant formulation for the remediation of diesel oil polluted sandy aquifers. Environ Sci Technol 33(8):1273–1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blanc P, Saada A, Baranger P (2006) A nonlinear parametric model for phenanthrene sorption. J Colloid Interf Sci 299(1):14–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Feng D, Aldrich C (2000) Sonochemical treatment of simulated soil contaminated with diesel. Adv Environ Res 4:103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Flores R, Blass G, Dominguez V (2007) Soil remediation by an advanced oxidative method assisted with ultrasonic energy. J Hazard Mater 140(1–2):399–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gómez J, Alcántara MT, Pazos M, Sanromán MA (2009) A two-stage process using electrokinetic remediation and electrochemical degradation for treating benzo[a]pyrene spiked kaolin. Chemosphere 74(11):1516–1521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hwang SC, Cutright TJ (2002) Biodegradability of aged pyrene and phenanthrene in a natural soil. Chemosphere 47(9):891–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Isaza PA, Daugulis AJ (2009) Ultrasonically enhanced delivery and degradation of PAHs in a polymer–liquid partitioning system by a microbial consortium. Biotechnol Bioeng 104(1):91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Isosaari P, Piskonen R, Ojala P, Voipio S, Eilola K, Lehmus E, Itavaara M (2007) Integration of electrokinetics and chemical oxidation for the remediation of creosote-contaminated clay. J Hazard Mater 144(1–2):538–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jiang M, Komanduri R (1997) Application of Taguchi method for optimization of finishing conditions in magnetic float polishing (MFP). Wear 213(1–2):59–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Khodadoust AP, Lei L, Antia JE, Bagchi R, Suidan MT, Tabak HH (2005) Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged harbor sediments. J Environ Eng 131(3):403–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Leglize P, Saada A, Berthelin J, Leyval C (2006) Evaluation of matrices for the sorption and biodegradation of phenanthrene. Water Resour 40(12):2397–2404Google Scholar
  13. Li A, Cheung KA, Reddy KR (2000) Cosolvent-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of soils contaminated with Phenanthrene. J Environ Eng 126(6):527–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mason TJ (2007) Sonochemistry and the environment–providing a “green” link between chemistry, physics and engineering. Ultrason Sonochem 14(4):476–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Muller S, Totsche KU, Kogel-Knabner I (2007) Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to mineral surfaces. Eur J Soil Sci 58(4):918–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. O’Mahony MM, Dobson ADW, Barnes JD, Singleton I (2006) The use of ozone in the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Chemosphere 63(2):307–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pham TD, Shrestha RA, Virkutyte J, Sillanpää M (2009) Recent studies in environmental applications of ultrasound. Can J Civil Eng 36(11):1849–1858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ross PJ (1996) Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering. McGaw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Ruberto LAM, Vazquez SC, Curtosi A, Mestre MC, Pelletier E, Mac Cormack WP (2006) Phenanthrene biodegradation in soils using an Antarctic bacterial consortium. Biorem J 10(4):191–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shrestha RA, Pham TD, Sillanpää M (2009) Effect of ultrasound on removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from different types of soils. J Hazard Mater 170(2–3):871–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Siddique T, Rutherford PM, Arocena JM, Thring RW (2006) A proposed method for rapid and economical extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils. Can J Soil Sci 86(4):725–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Suslick KS, Doktyes SJ, Flint EB (1990) On the origin of sonoluminescence and sonochemistry. Ultrasonics 28(5):280–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Taguchi G, Chowdhury S, Wu Y (2005) Taguchi’s quality engineering handbook. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  24. Urum K, Pekdemir T (2004) Evaluation of biosurfactants for crude oil contaminated soil washing. Chemosphere 57(9):1139–1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Villa RD, Trovó AG, Nogueira RFP (2010) Soil remediation using a coupled process: soil washing with surfactant followed by photo-Fenton oxidation. J Hazard Mater 174(1–3):770–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zeng GM, Zhang C, Huang G, Yu J, Wang Q, Li JB, Xi B, Liu H (2006) Adsorption behavior of bisphenol A on sediments in Xiangjiang River, Central-south China. Chemosphere 65(9):1490–1499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhao XK, Yang GP, Wu P, Li NH (2001) Study on adsorption of chlorobenzene on marine sediment. J Colloid Interf Sci 243(2):273–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhou W, Zhu L (2008) Enhanced soil flushing of phenanthrene by anionic-nonionic mixed surfactant. Water Res 42(1–2):101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Weikun Song
    • 1
  • Jianbing Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Wen Zhang
    • 1
  • Xuan Hu
    • 3
  • Ling Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Sino-Canada Research Academy of Energy and Environmental StudiesNorth China Electric Power UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Environmental Engineering ProgramUniversity of Northern British ColumbiaPrince GeorgeCanada
  3. 3.College of Environmental Sciences and EngineeringPeking UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations