Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 65, Issue 4, pp 1231–1250 | Cite as

Environmental geochemistry and quality assessment of surface and subsurface water of Mahi River basin, western India

  • Anupam Sharma
  • Abhay Kumar Singh
  • Kamlesh Kumar
Original Article

Abstract

The hydrogeochemical study of surface and subsurface water of Mahi River basin was undertaken to assess the major ion chemistry, solute acquisition processes and water quality in relation to domestic and irrigation uses. The analytical results show the mildly acidic to alkaline nature of water and dominance of Na+ and Ca2+ in cationic and HCO3 and Cl in anionic composition. In general, alkaline-earth elements (Ca2+ + Mg2+) exceed alkalis (Na+ + K+) and weak acids (HCO3 ) dominate over strong acids (SO4 2+ + Cl) in majority of the surface and groundwater samples. Ca2+–Mg2+–HCO3 is the dominant hydrochemical facies both in surface and groundwater of the area. The weathering of rock-forming minerals mainly controlled the solute acquisition process with secondary contribution from marine and anthropogenic sources. The higher concentration of sodium and dissolved silica, high equivalent ratios of (Na+ + K+/TZ+), (Na+ + K+/Cl) and low ratio of (Ca2+ + Mg2+)/(Na+ + K+) suggest that the chemical composition of the water is largely controlled by silicate weathering with limited contribution from carbonate weathering and marine and anthropogenic sources. Kaolinite is the possible mineral that is in equilibrium with the water, implying that the chemistry of river water favors kaolinite formation. Assessment of water samples for drinking purposes suggests that the majority of the water samples are suitable for drinking. At some sites concentrations of TDS, TH, F, NO3 and Fe are exceeding the desirable limit of drinking. However, these parameters are well within the maximum permissible limit except for some cases. To assess the suitability for irrigation, parameters like SAR, RSC and %Na were calculated. In general, both surface and groundwater is of good to suitable category for irrigation uses except at some sites where high values of salinity, %Na and RSC restrict its uses.

Keywords

Mahi River basin Hydrogeochemistry Hydrogeochemical process Weathering Water quality assessment Sodium adsorption ratio 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are thankful to the Director, BSIP, Lucknow, for extending all help and support to carryout this study. We also thank the Geochemical Division of Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, for analysis of water samples. Financial grant sanctioned to A.S. (Project Ref. No. SR/S4/ES-21/Baroda Window/P-1) under the Shallow Subsurface Studies program of Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, New Delhi, is gratefully acknowledged. We also thank Prof. L.S. Chamyal and his group for providing logistic help during the field work.

References

  1. Abbas N, Subramanian V (1984) Erosion and sediment transport in the Ganga River basin India. J Hydrol 69:173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrawal V, Jagetia M (1997) Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater quality in Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. In: Proc. of national conference on dimension of environmental stress in India, Department of Geology, MS University, Baroda, India, pp 151–154Google Scholar
  3. Ahmed T, Khanna PP, Chakrapani G, Balakrishnan S (1998) Geochemical characteristics of the Indus river Trans-Himalaya India constraints on weathering and erosion. J Asian Earth Sci 16:33–46Google Scholar
  4. Alexander RB, Smith RA, Schwarz GE (2000) Effect of stream channel size on the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico. Nature 403:758–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. APHA, AWWA, WPCF (1992) Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 16th edn. APHA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Appelo CAJ, Postma D (1993) Geochemistry, groundwater and pollution. AA Balkema, USA, p 536Google Scholar
  7. Back W (1966) Hydrochemical facies and ground flow patterns in northern part of Atlantic Coastal Plain, USGS Prof Paper 498-A, p 42Google Scholar
  8. Berner EK, Berner RA (1987) The global water cycle: geochemistry and environment. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  9. Bernot MJ, Dodds WK (2005) Nitrogen retention, removal, and saturation in lotic ecosystems. Ecosystems 8:442–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. BIS (1991) Indian standard specification for drinking water; Bureau of Indian Standards, IS: 10500, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  11. Borges J, Huh Y (2007) Petrography and chemistry of the bed sediments of the Red River in China and Vietnam: provenance and chemical weathering. Sediment Geol 194:155–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cullers R (1998) Mineralogical and chemical changes of soil and stream sediment formed by intense chemical weathering of Danburg granite, Georgia, USA. Lithos 21:301–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Darracq A, Destouni G (2005) In-stream nitrogen attenuation: model aggregation effects and implications for coastal nitrogen impacts. Environ Sci Technol 39:3716–3722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Durvey VS, Sharma LL, Saini VP, Sharma BK (1991) Handbook on the methodology of water quality assessment. Rajasthan Agriculture University, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  15. Eaton FM (1950) Significance of carbonates in irrigation waters. Soil Sci 39:123–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gaillardet J, Dupre B, Louvat P, Allegre CJ (1999) Global silicate weathering and CO2 consumption rates deduced from the chemistry of large rivers. Chem Geol 159:3–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Garrels RM, Christ CL (1965) Solutions, minerals and equilibria. Harper and Row, New York, p 450Google Scholar
  18. Garrels RM, Mackenzie FT (1971) Gregor’s denudation of the continents. Nature 231:382–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gibbs RJ (1970) Mechanisms controlling world water chemistry. Science 17:1088–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Haris N, Bickle M, Chapman H, Fairchild I, Bunbury J (1998) The significance of Himalayan Rivers for silicate weathering rates evidence from the Bhote Kosi tributary. Chem Geol 144:205–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hem JD (1989) Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water. USGS Water-Supply paper 2254. US Govt. printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  22. Juyal N, Kar A, Rajguru SN, Singhvi AK (2003) Luminescence chronology of Aeolian deposition during the Late Quaternary of the southern margin of Thar Desert, India. Quat Int 104:87–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Karanth KR (1989) Groundwater assessment development and management. Tata McGraw-Hill, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  24. Kessarkar PM, Rao VP, Ahmad SM, Babu GA (2003) Clay minerals and Sr–Nd isotopes of the sediments along the western margin of India and their implication for sediment provenance. Mar Geol 202:55–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Khadkikar AS, Merh SS, Malik JN, Chamyal LS (1998) Calcretes in semi-arid alluvial systems: formative pathways and sinks. Sediment Geol 116:251–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Majumdar D, Gupta N (2000) Nitrate pollution of groundwater and associated human health disorders. Indian J Environ Health 42:28–39Google Scholar
  27. Merh SS, Chamyal LS (1997) Quaternary geology of Gujarat alluvial plains. Ind Nat Sci Acad Monogr 63:1–98Google Scholar
  28. Meybeck MZ, Idlafkih NF, Andreassian V (1999) Spatial and temporal variability of total suspended solids in the Seine basin. Hydrobiology 410:295–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mondal NC, Singh VP, Singh VS, Saxena VK (2010) Determining the interaction between groundwater and saline water through groundwater major ion chemistry. J Hydrol 388:100–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pandey K, Sarin MM, Trivedi JR, Krishnaswami S, Sharma KK (1994) The Indus River system (India–Pakistan): major ion chemistry, uranium and strontium isotopes. Chem Geol 116:245–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Piper AM (1953) A graphical procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analysis. In: USGS Groundwater Note No. 12, p 63Google Scholar
  32. Rajamani V, Tripathi JK, Malviya VP (2009) Weathering of lower crustal rocks in the Kaveri river catchment southern India: implication to sediment geochemistry. Chem Geol 265:410–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ramanathan AL, Vaithiyanathan P, Subramanian V, Das BK (1994) Nature and transport of solute load in the Cauvery river basin, India. Water Res 28:1585–1593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ramesh R, Subramanian V (1988) Nature of the dissolved load of the Krishna River basin. J Hydrol 103:139–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Raymahashay BC (1986) Geochemistry of bicarbonate in the river water. J Geol Soc India 27:114–118Google Scholar
  36. Reeder SW, Hitchon B, Levinson AA (1972) Hydrogeochemistry of the surface waters of the Mackenzie drainage basin, Canada—factor controlling inorganic composition. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 36:825–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Richards LA (1954) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils, US Dept Agri Hand Book No. 60Google Scholar
  38. Saleh A, Al-Ruwaih F, Shehata M (1999) Hydrogeochemical processes operating within the main aquifers of Kuwait. J Arid Environ 42:195–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sarin MM, Krishnaswami S (1984) Major ion chemistry of the Ganga–Brahmaputra river system India. Nature 312:538–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sarin MM, Krishnaswamy S, Dilli K, Somayajulu BLK, Moore WS (1989) Major ion chemistry of the Ganga–Brahmaputra river system: weathering processes and fluxes to the Bay of Bengal. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 53:997–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sawyer CN, McCarty PL (1967) Chemistry of sanitary engineers, 2nd edn. McGraw Hill, New York, p 518Google Scholar
  42. Sharma A, Rajamani V (2001) Weathering of charnockite and sediment production in the catchment area of the Cauvery River southern India. Sediment Geol 143:169–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sharma JP, Shyampura RL, Sehgal J (1994) Soils of Gujarat. Nat Bur Soils Surv Spec Publ 29Google Scholar
  44. Singh AK, Hasnain SI (1999) Environmental geochemistry of Damodar River basin, east coast of India. Environ Geol 37:124–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Singh AK, Mondal GC, Singh PK, Singh S, Singh TB, Tewary BK (2005) Hydrochemistry of reservoirs of Damodar River basin, India: weathering processes and water quality assessment. Environ Geol 8:1014–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Singh AK, Mondal GC, Kumar S, Singh TB, Tewary BK, Sinha A (2008) Major ion chemistry, weathering processes and water quality assessment in upper catchment of Damodar River basin, India. Environ Geol 54:745–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sinha-Roy S, Malhotra G, Mohanty M (1998) Geology of Rajasthan. J Geol Soc IndiaGoogle Scholar
  48. Stallard RF, Edmond JM (1983) Geochemistry of the Amazon River. The influence of the geology and weathering environment on the dissolved load. J Geophys Res 88:9671–9688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Stallard RF, Edmond JM (1987) Geochemistry of the Amazon, weathering chemistry and limits to dissolved inputs. J Geophys Res 92:8293–8302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stumm W, Morgan JJ (1981) Aquatic chemistry. Wiley Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. Subramanian V (1983) Factors controlling the chemical compotation of River waters of India. Proc Hambg Symp 141:145–151Google Scholar
  52. Taylor SR, Mclennan SM (1995) The geochemical evolution of the continental crust. Rev Geophys 33:241–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Whiles MR, Dodds WK (2002) Relationship between stream size, suspended particles, and filter-feeding macroinvertebrates in a Great Plains drainage network. J Environ Qual 31:1589–1600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. WHO (1997) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, V.1. Recommendations. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  55. Wilcox LV (1955) Classification and use of irrigation waters, US Dept of Agricul Cir 969, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  56. Wollheim WM, Voromarty CJ, Peterson BJ, Seitzinger SP, Hopkinson CS (2006) Relationship between river size and nutrient removal. Geophys Res Lett 33:L06140–L06144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhang J, Haung R, Jiu MG, Zhou Q (1990) Drainage basin weathering and major element transport of two large Chinese rivers (Huanghe and Changjiang). J Geophys Res 95:13277–13288CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anupam Sharma
    • 1
  • Abhay Kumar Singh
    • 2
  • Kamlesh Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Birbal Sahni Institute of PalaeobotanyLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Central Institute of Mining and Fuel ResearchDhanbadIndia

Personalised recommendations