Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 65, Issue 3, pp 713–723 | Cite as

Effects of Torul dam on water quality in the stream Harşit, NE Turkey

  • Adem Bayram
  • Hızır Önsoy
  • M. İhsan Kömürcü
  • V. Numan Bulut
Original Article


This paper evaluates the effects of Torul dam on the stream Harşit water quality in terms of 13 physico-chemical parameters in the Gümüşhane Province, Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey. For this purpose, a study was fortnightly conducted during the four seasons between March 2009 and February 2010. In two monitoring stations selected in the upstream and downstream of the Torul dam, T, pH, DO and EC were determined in situ, and collected water samples were analyzed for TH, COD, NH4 +-N, NO2 -N, NO3 -N, TN, TKN, PO4 3−-P and MBAS. According to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation (TWPCR), the stream Harşit was classified, and the obtained results were evaluated for the values proposed by Turkish Standard (TS) 266 and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The results showed that the stream Harşit has high-quality water in terms of, T, pH, DO, COD, NH4 +-N and NO3 -N, but slightly polluted water in terms of NO2 -N, TKN and PO4 3−-P, and polluted for MBAS. It was concluded that Torul dam has a positive effect on the stream water quality in terms of decrease in the annual average concentration values. The percent decreases for TH, COD, NH4 +-N, NO2 -N, NO3 -N, TN, TKN, PO4 3−-P and MBAS were 17.1, 20.3, 56.2, 62.6, 11.7, 11.9, 11.4, 17.8 and 71.4, respectively. The reason for these decreases is probably due to the Torul dam reservoir where the water has a hydraulic residence time and the exposure to chemicals by aquatic organisms or populations that ingest the water. Also, statistical analysis shows that there are significant correlations among the studied parameters.


Correlation coefficient The stream Harşit Torul dam Water quality 



This work was supported by the Research Fund of Karadeniz (Black Sea) Technical University, project no. 2007.118.01.2.


  1. Akbulut M, Kaya H, Celik ES, Odabasi DA, Odabasi SS, Selvi K (2010) Assessment of surface water quality in the Atikhisar reservoir and Saricay Creek (Canakkale, Turkey). Ekoloji 19:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akkoyunlu A (2002) Water quality assessment of Omerli dam reservoir (Istanbul, Turkey). Fresen Environ Bull 11:208–217Google Scholar
  3. Altin A, Filiz Z, Iscen CF (2009) Assessment of seasonal variations of surface water quality characteristics for Porsuk Stream. Environ Monit Assess 158:51–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. APHA (1992) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 18th edn. American Public Health Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. Bayram A, Kankal M, Onsoy H, Bulut VN (2010a) The effects of hydraulics structures in the stream Harşit on suspended sediment transport. In H. Karahan H., Baykan (eds), VI. Ulusal Hidroloji Kongresi. Denizli, Turkey, (in Turkish with English abstract)Google Scholar
  6. Bayram A, Onsoy H, Bulut VN, Tufekci M (2010b) Dissolved oxygen levels in the stream Harşit (Turkey). In: 9th international congress on advances in civil engineering (full text in CD: ACE2010-HYD-041) Trabzon, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  7. Bayram A, Onsoy H, Bulut VN, Tufekci M (2010c) Effect of Torul and Kurtun dams on suspended sediment concentration in the stream Harşit (Turkey). In: 9th international congress on advances in civil engineering (full text in CD: ACE2010-HYD-042) Trabzon, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  8. Bayram A, Onsoy H, Akinci G, Bulut VN (2011a) Variation of total organic carbon content along the stream Harşit, Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey, Environ Monit Assess. doi: 10.1007/s10661-010-1860-2
  9. Bayram A, Onsoy H, Bulut VN, Tufekci M, Akpinar A (2011b) Effects of Gumushane municipal wastewaters on the stream Harşit water quality, Turkey. In: 4th international conference on water resources and sustainable development, Algiers, Algeria, pp 167–173Google Scholar
  10. Bayram A, Onsoy H, Seyfi H, Dulger K, Yaylali S (2011c) Investigation of water quality parameters in the streams Galyan and Degirmendere, Trabzon, Turkey. In: 4th international conference on water resources and sustainable development, Algiers, Algeria, pp. 361-367Google Scholar
  11. Bulut VN, Bayram A, Gundogdu A, Soylak M, Tufekci M (2010) Assessment of water quality parameters in the stream Galyan, Trabzon, Turkey. Environ Monit Assess 165:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Colt J (1984) Computation of dissolved gas concentrations in water as functions of temperature, salinity, and pressure. American Fisheries Society, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  13. DSİ (2010) State Hydraulic Works. Accessed 25 Feb 2011
  14. Duran M, Suicmez M (2007) Utilization of both benthic macroinvertebrates and physicochemical parameters for evaluating water quality of the stream Cekerek (Tokat, Turkey). J Environ Biol 28:231–236Google Scholar
  15. Duran M, Tuzen M, Kayim M (2003) Exploration of biological richness and water quality of stream Kelkit, Tokat-Turkey. Fresen Environ Bull 12:368–375Google Scholar
  16. Elhatip H, Güllü O (2005) Influences of wastewater discharges on the water quality of Mamasin dam watershed in Aksaray, Central Anatolian part of Turkey. Environ Geol 48:829–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Erdem A, Topkaya B (2004) Determination of land pollutants carried into the Mediterranean coastal zone by the Duden River, Antalya. Fresen Environ Bull 13:1339–1343Google Scholar
  18. Everitt BL (1993) Channel responses to declining flow on the Rio Grande between Ft. Quitman and the Presidio, Texas. Geomorphology 6:225–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gulbahar N, Elhatip H (2005) Estimation of environmental impacts on the water quality of the Tahtalidam watershed in Izmir, Turkey. Environ Geol 47:725–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Harding JPC, Burrows IG, Whitton BA (1981) Heavy metals in the Derwent Reservoir Catchment, Northern England. In: Say PJ, Whitton BA (eds) Proceedings of a conference on heavy metals and the environment. Durham, England, pp 17–18, 73–86Google Scholar
  21. Hirsch RM, Alexander RB, Smith RA (1991) Selection of methods for the detection and estimation of trends in water quality. Water Resour Res 27:803–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huang WR, Foo S (2002) Neural network modeling of salinity variation in Apalachicola River. Water Res 36:356–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jansson R, Nilsson C, Dynesius M, Andersson E (2000) Effects of river regulation on river-margin vegetation: a comparison of eight boreal rivers. Ecol Appl 10:203–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kileshye Onema JM, Mazvimavi D, Love D, Mul ML (2006) Effects of selected dams on river flows of Insiza River, Zimbabwe. Phys Chem Earth 31:870–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kurunc A, Yurekli K, Okman C (2006) Effects of Kilickaya Dam on concentration and load values of water quality constituents in Kelkit Stream in Turkey. J Hydrol 317:17–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ligon FK, Dietrich WE, Trush WJ (1995) Downstream ecological effects of dams. Bioscience 45:183–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Loperfido JV, Just CL, Schnoor JL (2009) High-frequency diel dissolved oxygen stream data modeled for variable temperature and scale. J Environ Eng-ASCE 135:1250–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Morkoc E, Tufekci V, Tufekci H, Tolun L, Karakoc FT, Guvensel T (2009) Effects of land-based sources on water quality in the Omerli reservoir (Istanbul, Turkey). Environ Geol 57:1035–1045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Morris GL, Fan J (1998) Reservoir sedimentation handbook: design and management of dams, reservoirs, and watershed for sustainable use. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 704Google Scholar
  30. Petts GE (1979) Complex response of river channel morphology subsequent to reservoir construction. Prog Phys Geog 3:329–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Szarek-Gwiazda E, Mazurkiewicz-Boron G (2002) Deposition of copper in the eutrophic, submontane Ddobczyce Dam Reservoir (Southern Poland)-role of speciation. Water Air Soil Poll 140:203–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Topping DJ, Rubin DM, Vierra LE (2000) Colorado River sediment transport—1. Natural sediment supply limitation and the influence of Glen Canyon Dam. Water Resour Res 36:515–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. TS 266 (2005) Türk Standartları Enstitüsü (TSE). Water intended for human consumption, Ankara, Turkey, (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  34. TSMS (2010) Turkish State Meteorological Service, Accessed 25 February 2011
  35. Tuzen M, Aydemir E, Sari H (2002) Investigation of some physical and chemical parameters in the River Yesilirmak in Tokat region, Turkey. Fresen Environ Bull 11:202–207Google Scholar
  36. TWPCR (2004) Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation. Official Gazette. no: 25687, Turkey, (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  37. Wei GL, Yang ZF, Cui BS, Li B, Chen H, Bai JH, Dong SK (2009) Impact of dam construction on water quality and water self-purification capacity of the Lancing River, China. Water Resour Manag 23:1763–1780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. WHO (2004) (World Health Organization) Guidelines for drinking water quality, 3rd edn. Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  39. Yalcin H, Guru M (2002) Su Teknolojisi, Palme Yayincilik, Ankara (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  40. Yesilnacar MI, Uyanik S (2005) Investigation of water quality of the world’s largest irrigation tunnel system, the Sanliurfa Tunnels in Turkey. Fresen Environ Bull 14:300–306Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adem Bayram
    • 1
  • Hızır Önsoy
    • 1
  • M. İhsan Kömürcü
    • 1
  • V. Numan Bulut
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringKaradeniz Technical UniversityTrabzonTurkey
  2. 2.Maçka Vocational SchoolKaradeniz Technical UniversityMacka-TrabzonTurkey

Personalised recommendations