Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 63, Issue 3, pp 513–532 | Cite as

Geologic and infrastructure factors for delineating areas for clean coal: examples in Texas, USA

  • W. A. Ambrose
  • C. Breton
  • S. D. Hovorka
  • I. J. Duncan
  • G. Gülen
  • M. H. Holtz
  • V. Núñez-López
Original Article


Texas has a wide variety of areas that can be targeted for new clean-coal facilities. These areas are delineated by mapping spatial linkages between coal- and lignite-bearing formations, groundwater and surface-water resources, and CO2 sinks in brine formations for long-term CO2 storage or in mature oil fields with potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, a variety of infrastructure factors make it feasible to also target numerous areas outside coal and lignite basins in Texas. These infrastructure factors include pipelines for delivery of CO2 to subsurface sinks and delivery of coal-produced hydrogen to refineries, ease of connection to existing transmission lines, distribution of nonattainment areas where new clean-coal facilities could be constructed and be compliant with strict air-quality standards, and railroads that can transport coal and other feedstock to new clean-coal facilities. Primary regions in Texas where favorably co-located CO2 source-sink factors related to coal and lignite trends include the Gulf Coast, the Eastern Shelf of the Permian Basin, and the Fort Worth Basin. However, areas outside coal and lignite basins, particularly the Permian Basin where a new clean-coal facility is being planned, also have clean-coal potential because of existing CO2 pipelines and proximity to EOR fields that can economically sustain new clean-coal facilities.


Clean coal Geology GIS Water resources Petroleum geology 



The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology acknowledges support of this research by Austin Energy, BP America, Chevron, Entergy, Exxon-Mobil Corp., KinderMorgan, Luminant, the Lower Colorado River Authority, Marathon, NRG, Praxair, Schlumberger, Shell, and the John A. and Katherine G. Jackson School of Geosciences. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center also acknowledges valuable insights from Environmental Defense. John Ames, under the supervision of Joel Lardon in the Media Information Technology Group, prepared the illustrations. Lana Dieterich edited the manuscript. Publication was authorized by the Director, Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin.


  1. Advanced Resources International (2006a) Basin oriented strategies for CO2 enhanced oil recovery: east and central Texas. Report prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy – Office of Oil and Natural Gas. http://fossil.energy.gov/programs/oilgas/publications/eor_co2/East_&_Central_Texas_Document.pdf. Cited 23 April 2010
  2. Advanced Resources International (2006b) Basin oriented strategies for CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Permian Basin. Report prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy – Office of Oil and Natural Gas. http://www.adv-res.com/pdf/Basin%20Oriented%20Strategies%20-%20Permian_Basin.pdf. Cited 23 April 2010
  3. Al-Juaied M, Whitmore A (2009) Realistic costs of carbon capture. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Energy Technology Innovation Research Group, Harvard Kennedy School. Discussion Paper 2009-08 57 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Ambrose WA, Hentz TF (2009) Core Workshop, Cleveland Formation and Marmaton Group, Anadarko Basin. In: Carr DL, Hentz TF, Ambrose WA, Potter EC, Clift SJ (eds) Sequence stratigraphy, depositional systems, and production trends in the Atoka Series and Mid-Pennsylvanian Cleveland and Marmaton Formations, western Anadarko Basin: Core Workshop. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Workshop Workbook No. SW0019, 23 ppGoogle Scholar
  5. Ambrose WA, Lakshminarasimhan S, Holtz MH, Núñez López V, Hovorka SD, Duncan IJ (2008) Geologic factors controlling CO2 storage capacity and permanence: case studies based on experience with heterogeneity in oil and gas reservoirs applied to CO2 storage. Env Geol 54:1619–1633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ambrose WA, Breton C, Holtz MH, Nuñez López V, Hovorka SD, Duncan IJ (2009a) CO2 source-sink matching in the lower 48 United States, with examples from the Texas Gulf Coast and Permian Basin. Env Geol 57:1537–1551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ambrose WA, Hentz TF, Bonnaffé F, Loucks RG, Brown LF Jr, Wang FP (2009b) Sequence stratigraphic controls on complex reservoir architecture of highstand fluvial-dominated deltaic and lowstand valley-fill deposits in the Woodbine Group, East Texas field: regional and local perspectives. AAPG Bull 93:231–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (2008) The need for additional U.S. coal-fired power plants. http://www.asme.org/NewsPublicPolicy/GovRelations/PositionStatements/Need_Additional_US_CoalFired.cfm. Cited 7 May 2010
  9. Ashworth JB (1990) Evaluation of ground-water resources in El Paso County, Texas. Texas Water Development Board Report 324, 25 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. Association of American Railroads (2006) Railroad service in Texas. http://www.aar.org/PubCommon/Documents/AboutTheIndustry/RRState_TX.pdf?states=RRState_TX.pdf. Cited 7 May 2010
  11. Ayers WB Jr, Lewis AH (1985) The Wilcox Group and Carrizo sand (Paleogene) in east-central Texas: depositional systems and deep-basin lignite. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology Special Publication 19 pp and 30 platesGoogle Scholar
  12. Ayers WB Jr, Lewis AH, Collins GF (1986) Resistivity, lignite and lithofacies mapping of the Wilcox Group, east-central Texas. In: Kaiser WR (ed) Geology and groundwater hydrology of deep-basin lignite in the Wilcox Group of East Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology Special Publication, pp 31–50Google Scholar
  13. Ball MM, Perry WJ (1996) Bend Arch-Fort Worth Basin Province (045). In: Gautier DL, Dolton GL, Takahashi KI, Varnes KL (eds) 1995 National assessment of United States oil and gas resources – Results, methodology, and supporting data: U.S. Geol Surv Digital Data Series DDS-30, Release 2. http://certmapper.cr.usgs.gov/data/noga95/prov45/text/prov45.pdf. Cited 7 May 2010
  14. Bebout DG, White WA, Hentz TF, Grasmick MK (1993) Atlas of major midcontinent gas reservoirs. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology and Gas Research Institute Special Publication, 85 pp and 4 platesGoogle Scholar
  15. Beck RA (2006) Coal: the cornerstone to America’s energy future. Power 150:42–46Google Scholar
  16. Brown LF Jr, Solís-Iriarte RF, Johns DA (1990) Regional depositional systems tracts, paleogeography, and sequence stratigraphy, upper Pennsylvanian and lower Permian strata, north- and west-central Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology Report of Investigations No. 197, 116 pp and 27 platesGoogle Scholar
  17. Brummett WM Jr, Emanuel AS, Ronquille JD (1976) Reservoir description by simulation at SACROC—a case history. J Petrol Technol 28:1241–1255Google Scholar
  18. Bureau of Economic Geology (2006) FutureGen water resources. http://www.beg.utexas.edu/futuregentexas/pdf/FGT_water.pdf. Cited 7 May 2010
  19. Bureau of Economic Geology (2008) U.S. subsurface brine database. http://www.beg.utexas.edu/environqlty/co2seq/co2data.htm. Cited 7 May 2010
  20. Caughey CA (1977) Depositional systems in the Paluxy Formation (Lower Cretaceous), northeast Texas—oil, gas, and ground-water resources. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology Geologic Circular 77-8, 59 ppGoogle Scholar
  21. Chadwick RA, Zweigel P, Gregersen U, Kirby GA, Holloway S, Johannessen PN (2004) Geological reservoir characterization of a CO2 storage site: the Utsira Sand, Sleipner, northern North Sea. Energy 29:1371–1381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dawson WC (2000) Shale microfacies: Eagle Ford Group (Cenomanian-Turonian) north-central Texas outcrops and subsurface equivalents. GCAGS Trans 50:607–621Google Scholar
  23. Denbury Resources (2010) The Green Pipeline project. http://www.denbury.com/index.php?id=51. Cited 7 May 2010
  24. Doughty CA, Pruess K, Benson SM, Hovorka SD, Green CT (2001) Capacity investigation of brine-bearing sands of the Frio Formation for geologic sequestration of CO2. In: Proceedings of the 1st national conference on carbon sequestration, May 14–17, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  25. Duncan I (2006) Numerical modeling of role of faults in understanding long-term CO2 storage: the upscaling dilemma (abs). In: NETL Conference Program, Alexandria VirginiaGoogle Scholar
  26. Dutton SP, Goldstein AG, Ruppel SC (1982) Petroleum potential of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology Report of Investigations No. 123, 87 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Dutton SP, Flanders WA, Barton MD (2003) Reservoir characterization of a Permian deep-water sandstone, East Ford field, Delaware basin, Texas. AAPG Bull 87:609–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Economides MJ, Ehlig-Economides (2009) Sequestering carbon dioxide in a closed underground volume. SPE Abstract 124430Google Scholar
  29. Electric Reliability Council of Texas (2008) Report on existing and potential electric system constraints and needs, December 2008. http://www.ercot.com/content/news/presentations/2008/2008_Constraints_and_Needs_Report_30DEC2008.pdf. Cited 7 May 2010
  30. Energy Information Administration (2009a) International coal production. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/coalproduction.html. Cited 7 May 2010
  31. Energy Information Administration (2009b) U.S. coal consumption by end-use sector. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/acr/table26.html. Cited 7 May 2010
  32. Energy Information Administration (2009c) Existing capacity by energy source. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p2.html. Cited 7 May 2010
  33. Energy Information Administration (2009d) International energy outlook 2009. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/emissions.html. Cited 7 May 2010
  34. Energy Information Administration (2009e) Emissions of greenhouse gases report. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/ggrpt/. Cited 7 May 2010
  35. Energy Information Administration (2009f) U.S. coal supply and demand, 2008 review. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/special/tbl2.html. Cited 7 May 2010
  36. Energy Information Administration (2009g) Texas electricity profile, 2008. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/st_profiles/texas.html. Cited 26 April 2010
  37. Energy Information Administration (2009h) Existing net summer capacity by energy source and producer type. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat1p1.html. Cited 7 May 2010
  38. Energy Information Administration (2009i) U.S. coalbed methane: past, present, and future. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/rpd/cbmusa2.pdf. Cited 3 May 2010
  39. Evans TJ (1974) Bituminous coal in Texas. In: bureau of economic geology handbook, vol 4. The University of Texas at Austin, 65 ppGoogle Scholar
  40. Fairley P (2010) Clean-coal power plant set for Texas. Technology review. http://www.technologyreview.com/energy/24434/page1/. Cited 3 May 2010
  41. Galloway WE (1989) Genetic stratigraphic sequences in basin analysis I: architecture and genesis of flooding-surface bounded depositional units. AAPG Bull 73:125–142Google Scholar
  42. Galloway WE, Ewing TE, Garrett CM, Tyler N, Bebout DG (1983) Atlas of major Texas oil reservoirs. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology Special Publication, Austin, p 139Google Scholar
  43. Gozalpour F, Ren SR, Tohidi B (2005) CO2 EOR and storage in oil reservoirs. Oil Gas Sci Technol 60:537–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gunter WD, Wong S, Cheel DB, Sjostrom G (1998) Large carbon dioxide sinks: their role in the mitigation of greenhouse gases from an international, national (Canada) and provincial (Alberta) perspective. Appl Energy 61:209–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ham WE, Denison RE, Merritt CA (1964) Basement rocks and structural evolution of southern Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geol Surv Bull 95:302Google Scholar
  46. Hamlin HS (2009) Ozona sandstone, Val Verde Basin: synorogenic stratigraphy and depositional history in a Permian foredeep basin. AAPG Bull 93:573–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Handford CR, Dutton SP (1980) Pennsylvanian—Early Permian depositional systems and shelf-margin evolution, Palo Duro Basin, Texas. AAPG Bull 64:88–106Google Scholar
  48. Hentz TF, Potter E, Adedeji MA (2007) Reservoir-scale depositional facies, trends, and controls on sandstone distribution of the lower Atoka Group (“Bend Conglomerate”), Fort Worth Basin, Texas (abs.). AAPG Annual Convention Abstracts, vol 16, p 62Google Scholar
  49. Hickman RG, Varga RJ, Altany RM (2009) Structural style of the Marathon thrust belt, west Texas. J Struct Geol 31:900–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hiss WL (1980) Movement of ground waters in Permian Guadalupian aquifer systems, southeastern New Mexico and western Texas. In: Dickerson PW, Hotter JM (eds) Trans-Pecos region. New Mexico Geol Soc, 31st Field Cent Guidebook, pp 289–294Google Scholar
  51. Holtz MH, Nance P, Finley RJ (2001) Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through underground CO2 sequestration in Texas oil reservoirs. Environ Geosci 8:187–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Holtz MH, Ambrose B, Núñez V, Moore M, Lundeen J (2005a) Reserve growth potential from enhanced oil recovery along the Gulf Coast. Bureau of Economic Geology and Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) Workshop Notes, variously paginatedGoogle Scholar
  53. Holtz MH, Núñez López V, Breton C (2005b) Moving Permian Basin technology to the Gulf Coast: the geologic distribution of CO2 EOR potential in Gulf Coast reservoirs. West Texas Geol Soc Pub 05-115, 11 ppGoogle Scholar
  54. Hovorka SD (1987) Depositional environments of marine-dominated bedded halite, Permian San Andres Formation, Texas. Sedimentology 34:1029–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hovorka SD (2005) Frio brine pilot experiment—six months after injection. Greenh Issues 77:1–3Google Scholar
  56. Hovorka SD, Mace RE, Collins EW (1998) Permeability structure of the Edwards aquifer—implications for aquifer management. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology Report of Investigations No. 250, 55 ppGoogle Scholar
  57. Hovorka SD, Doughty CS, Benson SM, Pruess K, Knox PR (2004) The impact of geological heterogeneity on CO2 storage in brine formations: a case study from the Texas Gulf Coast. In: Baines SJ, Worden RH (eds) Geological storage of carbon dioxide. Geol Soc Lond Special Pub 233:147–163Google Scholar
  58. International Energy Agency (2002) Building the cost curves for CO2 storage, part 1: sources of CO2. IEA Report Number PH4/9 on CD, JulyGoogle Scholar
  59. Johnson KS (1989) Geological evolution of the Anadarko Basin. In: Johnson KS (ed) Anadarko basin symposium, 1988. Oklahoma Geol Surv Circ, vol 90, pp 3–12Google Scholar
  60. Kaiser WR (1974) Texas lignite: near-surface and deep-basin resources. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology Report of Investigations No. 79, 70 ppGoogle Scholar
  61. Kaiser WR, Ayers WB Jr, La Brie LW (1980) Lignite resources in Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology Report of Investigations No. 104, 52 ppGoogle Scholar
  62. Khatun S, Doser DI, Imana EC, Keller GR (2007) Locating faults in the southern Mesilla Bolson, west Texas and southern New Mexico, using 3-D modeling of precision gravity data. J Env Eng Geophys 12:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. King C (2008) Research and design in energy systems. Center for International Energy and Environmental Policy, The University of Texas at Austin. http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu/CATEE/2008/presentations/Taking%20New%20Technology%20to%20Commercialization%203%2012-17-08%20Carey%20King.pdf. Cited 7 May 2010
  64. Kosters EC, Bebout DG, Seni SJ, Garrett CM Jr, Brown LF Jr, Hamlin HS, Dutton SP, Ruppel SC, Finley RJ, Tyler N (1989) Atlas of major Texas gas reservoirs. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin, p 161Google Scholar
  65. Kreitler CW, Sharp JM Jr (1990) Hydrogeology of Trans-Pecos Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau Economic Geology Guidebook 25, 120 ppGoogle Scholar
  66. Langenberg MA, Henry DM, Chlebana MR (1995) Performance and expansion plans for the double-displacement process in the Hawkins field unit. SPE Paper 28603:301–308Google Scholar
  67. Locklin AC (1984) Currie field (Smackover), East Texas Basin—with a brief review of the exploration of the Mexia-Talco Fault System. In: Presley MW (ed) The Jurassic of East Texas. East Texas Geol Soc, pp 67–78Google Scholar
  68. Mace RE, Smyth RC (2003) Hydraulic properties of the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer in Texas: information for groundwater modeling, planning, and management. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology Report of Investigations No. 269, 40 ppGoogle Scholar
  69. Mapel WJ (1967) Bituminous coal resources of Texas. USGS Bull 1242-D:Dl-D28Google Scholar
  70. Mastalerz M, Gluskoter H, Rupp J (2004) Carbon dioxide and methane sorption in high volatile bituminous coals from Indiana, USA. Int J Coal Geol 60:43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McBride EF (1978) Tesnus and Haymond Formations-siliciclastic flysch. In: Mazzullo SJ (ed) Tectonic and Paleozoic facies of the Marathon Geosyncline. SEPM Pub 78-17, West Texas, pp 131–148Google Scholar
  72. McVay DA, Ayers WB Jr, Jensen JL (2007) CO2 sequestration potential of Texas low-rank coals: Texas Engineering Experiment Station. Final Technical Report for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under contract DE-FC26-O2NT41588, 127 ppGoogle Scholar
  73. McVay DA, Bello RO, Ayers WB Jr, Hernandez GA, Rushing JA, Ruhl SK, Hoffmann MF, Ramazanova RI (2009) Evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of CO2 sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in Texas low-rank coals. In: Grobe M, Pashin JC, Dodge RL (eds) Carbon dioxide sequestration in geological media—state of the science. AAPG studies in geology, vol 59, pp 665–688Google Scholar
  74. Merritt MB, Groce JF (1992) A case history of the Hanford San Andres Miscible CO2 project. JPT 44:924–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Muehlberger WR, Belcher RC, Goetz LK (1978) Quaternary faulting in Trans-Pecos Texas. Geology 6:337–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mullican WF III, Johns ND, Fryar AE (1997) Playas and recharge of the Ogallala aquifer on the southern high plains of Texas—an examination using numerical techniques. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology Report of Investigations No. 242, 72 ppGoogle Scholar
  77. Nance HS (1988) Interfingering of evaporites and red beds: an example from the Queen/Grayburg Formation, Texas. Sediment Geol 56:357–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. National Energy Technology Laboratory (2008) Key issues and mandates: clean power generation – market and policy drivers. http://www.netl.doe.gov/KeyIssues/clean_power2.html. Cited 7 May 2010
  79. Nicot JP, Hovorka SD, Knox PR, Naing T (2006) Area of review: how large is large enough for carbon storage? In: Proceedings of the 2006 UIC conference of the groundwater protection council, Abstract 17Google Scholar
  80. Nielson PD, Sharp JM Jr (1985) Tectonic controls on the hydrogeology of the Salt Basin, Trans-Pecos Texas. In: Dickerson PW, Muehlberger WR (eds) Structure and tectonics of Trans-Pecos Texas. West Texas Geol Soc Field Conf, Pub., vol 85–81, pp 231–235Google Scholar
  81. Núñez López V, Holtz MH, Wood DJ, Ambrose WA, Hovorka SD (2008) Quick-look assessments to identify optimal CO2 EOR storage sites. Env Geol 54:1695–1706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pittaway KR, Rosato RJ (1991) The Ford Geraldine Unit CO2 flood—update 1990. SPE Res Eng 6:410–414Google Scholar
  83. Preston RD, Pavlicek DJ, Bluntzer RL, Derton J (1996) The Paleozoic and related aquifers of Central Texas. Texas Water Development Board Report 346, 85 ppGoogle Scholar
  84. Railroad Commission of Texas (2008) Surface mining: Texas coal production. https://www.rrc.state.tx.us/programs/mining/TxCoaLst.pdf. Cited 16 November 2009
  85. Ratafia-Brown JA, Manfredo LM, Hoffmann JW, Ramezan M, Stiegel GJ (2002) An environmental assessment of IGCC power systems. http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/coalpower/gasification/pubs/pdf/18.pdf. Cited 7 May 2010
  86. Reese JF, Mosher S, Connelly J, Roback R (2000) Mesoproterozoic chronostratigraphy of the southeastern Llano uplift, central Texas. GSA Bull 112:278–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Reeves S (2003) Assessment of CO2 sequestration and ECBM potential of U. S. coalbeds. USDOE Topical Report DE-FC26-0NT40924. http://www.coal-seq.com/Proceedings2003/Assessment%20of%20CO2%20Sequestration%20and%20ECBM%20Potential%20120103.pdf. Cited 26 April 2010
  88. Ricoy JU, Brown LF Jr (1977) Depositional systems in the Sparta Formation (Eocene), Gulf Coast Basin of Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology Geological Circular No. 7707, 16 ppGoogle Scholar
  89. Ruppert LF, Kirschbaum MA, Warwick PD, Flores RM, Affolter RH, Hatch JR (2002) The U.S. Geological Survey’s national coal resource assessment. Intern J Coal Geol 50:247–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. SanFilipo JR (1999) Some speculations on coal-rank anomalies of the South Texas Gulf Province and adjacent areas of Mexico and their impact on coal-bed methane and source rock potential. USGS Open-File Report 99–301, pp 37–47Google Scholar
  91. Scorecard (2008) Nonattainment areas. http://www.scorecard.org/env-releases/def/cap_naa.html. Cited 7 May 2010
  92. Shaw J, Bachu S (2002) Screening, evaluation, and ranking of oil reservoirs suitable for CO2 flood EOR and carbon dioxide sequestration. J Can Petroleum Technol 41:51–61Google Scholar
  93. Shi JQ, Durucan S (2005) CO2 storage in deep unminable coal seams. Oil Gas Sci Technol 60:547–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Southwest Power Pool (2010) Southwest Power Pool summary. http://www.spp.org/publications/Intro_to_SPP_Presentation.pdf. Cited 4 May 2010
  95. Stanton R, Flores R, Warwick PD, Gluskoter H, Stricker GD (2001) Coalbed sequestration of carbon dioxide. In: First national conference on carbon sequestration, Washington, DC. http://www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/01/carbon_seq/3a3.pdf. Cited 26 April 2010
  96. Strain WS (1971) Late Cenozoic bolson integration in the Chihuahua tectonic belt. In: Seewald K, Sundeen D (eds) West Texas Geol Soc Pub, vol 71–59, pp 167–173Google Scholar
  97. Texas Water Development Board (1972) A survey of the subsurface saline water in Texas. Texas Water Development Board Report 157, 113 ppGoogle Scholar
  98. Texas Water Development Board (2001) Aquifers of west Texas. Texas Water Development Board Report 356, 263 ppGoogle Scholar
  99. Thompson DM (1982) Atoka Group (Lower to Middle Pennsylvanian), northern Fort Worth Basin, Texas: terrigenous depositional systems, diagenesis, and reservoir distribution and quality. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology Report of Investigations No. 125, 62 ppGoogle Scholar
  100. Tyler N, Ambrose WA (1986) Facies architecture and production characteristics of strand-plain reservoirs in North Markham-North Bay City field, Frio Formation, Texas. AAPG Bull 70:809–829Google Scholar
  101. Union of Concerned Scientists (2008) Environmental impact of coal power: water use. http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/coalvswind/c02b.html. Cited 7 May 2010
  102. U.S. Department of Energy (2009a) Gasification technology R & D. http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/powersystems/gasification/index.html. Cited 7 May 2010
  103. U.S. Department of Energy (2009b) Today’s hydrogen production industry. http://www.fe.doe.gov/programs/fuels/hydrogen/currenttechnology.html. Cited 7 May 2010
  104. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2006) Greenbook: nonattainment areas for criteria pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps/greenbk/mapco.html. Cited 7 May 2010
  105. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2008) Glossary of underground injection control terms. http://www.epa.gov/R5water/uic/glossary.htm#usdw. Cited 23 April 2010
  106. U.S. Geological Survey (2009) National coal resources data system. http://energy.er.usgs.gov/coalres.htm. Cited 7 May 2010
  107. Walton AW (1986) Effect of Oligocene volcanism on sedimentation in the Trans-Pecos volcanic field of Texas. GSA Bull 97:1192–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Warner DL, Koederitz L, Laudon RC (1997) Application of an area-of-review (AOR) concept to the East Texas Field and other selected Texas oilfields. University of Missouri-Rolla, final report for U.S. Department of Energy Grant No DE-FG22-94MT-94002Google Scholar
  109. Warwick PD, Aubourg CE, Willett JC (1999) Tertiary coals in South Texas: anomalous cannel-like coals of Webb County (Claiborne Group, Eocene) and lignites of Atascosa County (Jackson Group, Eocene)—geologic setting, character, source-rock, and coal-bed methane potential. USGS Open-File Report 99–301, 55 ppGoogle Scholar
  110. World Resources Institute (2008) CCS guidelines: guidelines for carbon dioxide capture, transport, and storage. http://pdf.wri.org/ccs_guidelines.pdf. Cited 7 May 2010
  111. Xue L, Galloway WE (1995) High-resolution depositional framework of the Paleocene Middle Wilcox strata, Texas Coastal Plain. AAPG Bull 79:205–230Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. A. Ambrose
    • 1
  • C. Breton
    • 1
  • S. D. Hovorka
    • 1
  • I. J. Duncan
    • 1
  • G. Gülen
    • 2
  • M. H. Holtz
    • 3
  • V. Núñez-López
    • 4
  1. 1.Gulf Coast Carbon Center, Bureau of Economic Geology, John A. and Katherine G. Jackson School of GeosciencesThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  2. 2.Center for Energy EconomicsThe University of Texas at AustinHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Praxair, Inc.HoustonUSA
  4. 4.Chevron CorporationSan RamonUSA

Personalised recommendations