Dynamics of CO2 fluxes and concentrations during a shallow subsurface CO2 release
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A field facility located in Bozeman, Montana provides the opportunity to test methods to detect, locate, and quantify potential CO2 leakage from geologic storage sites. From 9 July to 7 August 2008, 0.3 t CO2 day−1 were injected from a 100-m long, ~2.5-m deep horizontal well. Repeated measurements of soil CO2 fluxes on a grid characterized the spatio-temporal evolution of the surface leakage signal and quantified the surface leakage rate. Infrared CO2 concentration sensors installed in the soil at 30 cm depth at 0–10 m from the well and at 4 cm above the ground at 0 and 5 m from the well recorded surface breakthrough of CO2 leakage and migration of CO2 leakage through the soil. Temporal variations in CO2 concentrations were correlated with atmospheric and soil temperature, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, rainfall, and CO2 injection rate.
KeywordsSoil CO2 flux CO2 concentration Leakage Geological carbon sequestration monitoring
We thank K. Gullickson for helpful assistance in the field. This work was funded by the ZERT Project, Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen, and Clean Coal Fuels, NETL, of the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.
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