Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 60, Issue 2, pp 409–419 | Cite as

Magnetic properties and heavy metal content of sanitary leachate sludge in two landfill sites near Bandung, Indonesia

  • Satria BijaksanaEmail author
  • Estevanus Kristian Huliselan
Original Article


Magnetic properties and heavy metal content of landfill leachate sludge samples from two municipal solid waste disposal sites near Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, and their correlation with heavy metals are studied in the present work. Leachate was found to be sufficiently magnetic with mass-specific magnetic susceptibility that varies from 64.8 to 349.0 × 10−8 m3 kg−1. It is, however, less magnetic than the soils around the landfill sites. The magnetic minerals are predominantly pseudo-single domain and multidomain magnetite. Leachate samples from the older but inactive disposal site, Jelekong, are found to be more magnetic than that from Sarimukti, the younger and active site. The enhancement of leachate due to the soil-derived ferrimagnetic particles is possibly the same for both Sarimukti and Jelekong. The fact that strong correlation between magnetic parameters and heavy metals is observed in Jelekong but is absent in Sarimukti suggests that the use of magnetic measurement as a proxy measurement for heavy metal content in leachate is plausible provided that the magnetic susceptibility exceeds certain threshold value. Moreover, the accumulation of magnetic minerals and heavy metals in leachate might depend on the activity and the age of landfill site.


Environmental magnetism Leachate Magnetic susceptibility Heavy metals Bandung 



The authors wish to thank the Ministry of National Education of the Republic of Indonesia for its financial support in the form of Hibah Pascasarjana to the senior author. Thanks are also due to Eduard Petrovský for critical and helpful comments. Joseph Hodych read the earlier version of the manuscript. Muhammad Irvan, Hamdi Rifai, Khumaedi Sastrawiharja, and Erni Rahman are thanked for their assistance in the field and in the laboratory.


  1. Alvarez-Vazquez H, Jefferson B, Judd SJ (2004) Membrane bioreactors vs conventional biological treatment of landfill leachate: a brief review. J Chem Tech Biotechnol 79:1043–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baun DL, Christensen TH (2004) Speciation of heavy metals in landfill leachate: a review. Waste Manag Res 22:3–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bityukova L, Scholger R, Birke M (1999) Magnetic susceptibility as indicator of environmental pollution of soils in Tallin. Phys Chem Earth (A) 24(9):829–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bloemendal J, Barton CE, Radhakrishnamurthy C (1985) Correlation between Rayleigh loops and frequency dependent and quadrature susceptibility: applications to magnetic granulometry of rocks. J Geophys Res 90:8789–8792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bozkurt S, Moreno L, Neretnieks I (2000) Long-term processes in waste deposits. Sci Total Environ 250:101–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chaparro MAE, Bidegain JC, Sinito AM, Gogorza CS, Jurado S (2003) Preliminary results of magnetic measurements on stream sediments from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Stud Geophys Geod 47(1):121–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chaparro MAE, Nuňez H, Lirio JM, Gogorza CSG, Sinito AM (2007) Magnetic screening and heavy metal pollution studies in soils from Marambio Station, Antarctica. Antarct Sci 19:379–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chaparro MAE, Chaparro MAE, Marinelli C, Sinito AM (2008) Multivariate techniques as alternative statistical tools applied to magnetic proxies for pollution: a case study from Argentina and Antarctica. Environ Geol 54:365–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Charlesworth SM, Lees JA (1997) The use of mineral magnetic measurements in polluted urban lakes and deposited dusts, Coventry, UK. Phys Chem Earth 22:203–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Charlesworth SM, Lees JA (2001) The application of some mineral magnetic measurements and heavy metal analysis for characterizing fine sediments in urban catchment, Coventry, UK. J Appl Geophys 48:113–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Christensen TH, Kjeldsen P, Bjerg PL, Jensen DL, Christensen JB, Baun A, Albrechtsen HJ, Heron G (2001) Biogeochemistry of landfill leachate plumes. Appl Geochem 16:659–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Day R, Fuller M, Schmidt SK (1977) Hysteresis properties of titanomagnetite: grain-size and compositional dependence. Phys Earth Planet Int 13:260–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dearing JA (1999) Environmental magnetic susceptibility using the Bartington MS2 System. Chi Publishing, Kenilworth, p 54Google Scholar
  14. Dearing JA, Dann RJL, Hay K, Lees JA, Loveland PJ, Maher BA, O’Grady K (1996) Frequency-dependent susceptibility measurements of environmental materials. Geophys J Int 124:228–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deng Y, Englehardt JD (2007) Electrochemical oxidation for landfill leachate treatment. Waste Manag 27:380–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Evans ME, Heller F (2003) Environmental magnetism: principles and applications of enviromagnetics. Academic Press, Amsterdam, p 312Google Scholar
  17. Georgeaud VM, Rochette P, Ambrosi JP, Bottero JY (1997) Heavy metal sorption and magnetic properties of magnetite: a case study. In: Abstract for the 8th scientific assembly of IAGA. Uppsala, Sweden, p 98Google Scholar
  18. Hanesch M, Scholger R (2002) Mapping of heavy metal loadings in soils by means of magnetic susceptibility measurements. Environ Geol 42:857–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. King J, Banerjee SK, Marvin J, Ozdemir O (1982) A comparison of different magnetic methods for determining the relative grain size of magnetite in natural materials: some results from lake sediments. Earth Planet Sci Lett 59:404–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Knab M, Appel E, Hoffmann V (2001) Separation of the anthropogenic portion of heavy metal contents along a highway by means of magnetic susceptibility and fuzzy c-means cluster analysis. Eur J Environ Eng Geophys 6:125–140Google Scholar
  21. Kruiver PP, Dekkers MJ, Heslop D (2001) Quantification of magnetic coercivity components by the analysis of acquisition curves of isothermal remanent magnetization. Earth Planet Sci Lett 189:269–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lu SG, Bai SQ (2006) Study on the correlation of magnetic properties and heavy metals content in urban soils of Hangzhou City, China. J Appl Geophys 60:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lu SG, Bai SQ, Cai JB, Xu C (2005) Magnetic properties and heavy metal contents of automobile emission particulates. J Zhejiang Univ Sci 6:731–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Maher BA (1988) Magnetic properties of some synthetic sub-micron magnetites. Geophys J Int 94:83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ng SL, Chan LS, Lam KC, Chan WK (2003) Heavy metal contents and magnetic properties of playground dust in Hong Kong. Environ Monit Assess 89:221–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Oldfield F (1991) Environmental magnetism–a personal perspective. Quat Sci Rev 10:73–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Oldfield F, Wu R (2000) The magnetic properties of the recent sediments of Brothers Water, NW England. J Paleolim 23:165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Petrovský E, Kapička A, Zapletal K, Sebestova E, Spanila T, Dekkers MJ, Rochette P (1998) Correlation between magnetic parameters and chemical composition of lake sediments from Northern Bohemia-preliminary study. Phys Chem Earth 23:1123–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Petrovský E, Kapička A, Jordanova N, Borůvka L (2001) Magnetic properties of alluvial soils contaminated with lead, zinc and cadmium. J Appl Geophys 48:127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Qasim RS, Chiang W (1994) Sanitary landfill leachate: generation, control and treatment. Technomic, Lancaster, p 339Google Scholar
  31. Rose AW, Bianchi-Mosquera GC (1993) Adsorption of Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni and Ag on goethite and hematite: a control on metal mobilization from red beds into stratiform copper deposits. Econ Geol 88:1226–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schmidt A, Yarnold R, Hill M, Ashmore M (2005) Magnetic susceptibility as proxy for heavy metal pollution: a site study. J Geochem Explor 85:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sharma AP, Tripathi BD (2007) Magnetic mapping of fly-ash pollution and heavy metals from soil samples around a point source in a dry tropical environment. Environ Monit Assess 138:31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shu J, Dearing JA, Morse AP, Yu LZ, Li C (2000) Magnetic properties of daily sampled total suspended particulates in Shanghai. Environ Sci Technol 34:2393–2400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Silitonga PH (1973) Geologic map of the Bandung quadrangle, Jawa. Geological Research and Development Center, BandungGoogle Scholar
  36. Slack RJ, Gronow JR, Voulvoulis N (2005) Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: contaminants in leachate. Sci Total Environ 337:119–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Slack RJ, Gronow JR, Hall DH, Voulvoulis N (2007) Household hazardous waste disposal to landfill: using LandSim to model leachate migration. Environ Pollut 146:501–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sudjatmiko S (1972) Geologic map of the Cianjur quadrangle, Jawa. Geological Research and Development Center, BandungGoogle Scholar
  39. Thompson R, Oldfield F (1986) Environmental magnetism. Allen and Unwin Publishers Ltd, UK, p 227Google Scholar
  40. Wang XS, Qin Y (2006a) Comparison of magnetic parameters with vehicular Br levels in urban roadside soils. Environ Geol 50:787–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang XS, Qin Y (2006b) Use of multivariate statistical analysis to determine the relationship between the magnetic properties of urban topsoil and its metal, S, and Br content. Environ Geol 51:509–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yang T, Lin Q, Chan L, Liu Z (2007) Magnetic signature of heavy metals pollution of sediments: case study from the Lake in Wuhan, China. Environ Geol 52:1639–1650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhang W, Yu L, Lu M, Zheng X, Shi Y (2007) Magnetic properties and geochemistry of the Xiashu Loess in the present subtropical area of China, and their implications for pedogenic intensity. Earth Planet Sci Lett 260:86–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Satria Bijaksana
    • 1
    Email author
  • Estevanus Kristian Huliselan
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Mathematics and Natural SciencesBandung Institute of TechnologyBandungIndonesia

Personalised recommendations