Indian Journal of Gastroenterology

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 110–116 | Cite as

Genotype distribution in relation to viral load in a large cohort of Indian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: A retrospective analysis

  • Balkumar Reddy Panyala
  • Rathindra Mohan MukherjeeEmail author
  • Himaja Devarakonda
  • Sivasathish Tadivaka
  • Nagaraja Rao Padaki
  • Mithun Sharma
  • Nageshwar Reddy Duvvuru
Original Article



Hepatitis C virus (HCV) displays high genetic diversity, characterized by regional variations in the prevalence of genotype posing challenges to the development of vaccines and definitive treatment. Very few reports exist on the distribution and frequency change of HCV genotypes in India. In the present retrospective study, we aimed to understand the distribution pattern of HCV genotypes and viral load among HCV-infected patients attending the Asian Institute of Gastroenterology, Hyderabad, India, a tertiary care hospital.


Patients referred to the Hepatology Department from January 2009 to December 2015 were screened for this study. Eight hundred and sixty-two chronic HCV patients were included in this study. Genotyping was performed using type-specific probe-based hybridization assay and viral load was estimated by real-time polymerase chain reaction.


Out of 862 patients, genotype 1 was detected predominantly in 392 (45.5%), followed by genotype 3 in 344 (39.9%) patients; genotypes 4, 6, and 2 were detected in 115 (13.3%), 8 (0.9%), and 3 (0.3%) patients, respectively. The number of patients having genotype 1 increased in frequency while genotype 3 became less from the year 2009 to 2015. Patients having genotype 1 had significantly (p < 0.0001) higher viral load compared with the patients infected with other genotypes.


Our study results demonstrate a change in HCV genotypic distribution pattern from genotypes 3 to 1 during the span of 7 years in patients referred to our hospital. In the light of the reported difference in the pathogenic potential of various HCV genotypes, detection of HCV genotype appears to be still essential for better patient management.


HCV genotyping Hepatitis C virus Viral RNA 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

BRP, RMM, HD, ST, NRP, MS, and NRD declares that there are no conflicts of interest. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board.

Ethics statement

The authors declare that the study was performed in a manner conforming to the Helsinki declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and 2008 concerning human and animal rights, and the authors followed the policy concerning informed consent as shown on


The authors are solely responsible for the data and the content of the paper. In no way, the Honorary Editor-in-Chief, Editorial Board Members, or the printer/publishers are responsible for the results/findings and content of this article.


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Copyright information

© Indian Society of Gastroenterology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Balkumar Reddy Panyala
    • 1
  • Rathindra Mohan Mukherjee
    • 1
    Email author
  • Himaja Devarakonda
    • 1
  • Sivasathish Tadivaka
    • 1
  • Nagaraja Rao Padaki
    • 2
  • Mithun Sharma
    • 2
  • Nageshwar Reddy Duvvuru
    • 2
  1. 1.Asian Healthcare FoundationHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Asian Institute of GastroenterologyHyderabadIndia

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