Indian Journal of Gastroenterology

, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 83–90 | Cite as

Frequency, spectrum, and factors associated with fecal evacuation disorders among patients with chronic constipation referred to a tertiary care center in northern India

  • Uday C. Ghoshal
  • Abhai Verma
  • Asha Misra
Original Article



Data on fecal evacuation disorder (FED) causing chronic constipation (CC) is scanty in India.


Prospectively maintained data of 249 consecutive patients with CC (Rome III) referred for investigations were retrospectively analyzed.


Of 249 patients (43.7 ± 16.2 years, 174 males), 135/242 (55.8 %), 57/249 (22.9 %), and 83/136 (61.0 %) had abnormal balloon expulsion test (>200 g), anorectal manometry [>100 mmHg resting pressure (n = 4), >167 mmHg squeeze pressure (n = 46), and both (n = 7)], and defecography (anorectal angle not opening by >15° during defecation, perineal descent ≥4 cm, and/or rectocele), respectively. Though 181/249 (72.6 %) had one test abnormality, 86/249 (34 %) had FED (greater than or equal to two abnormalities), 44/65 (67.6 %) of whom had a defecation index ≤1.4. Rome III criteria for irritable bowel syndrome were equally fulfilled by patients with and without FED [74/83 (89 %) vs. 117/144 (81.2 %); p = ns]. On univariate analysis, straining duration, prolonged straining [≥30 min; 21/39 (53.8 %) vs. 15/65 (23.1 %); p = 0.002], incomplete evacuation [75/77 (97.4 %) vs. 95/114 (83.3 %); p = 0.004], and >3 stools/week [60/75 (80 %) vs. 76/128 (60 %); p = 0.004] were commoner among the FED patients though age, gender, symptom duration, mucus, manual evacuation, and stool forms were comparable. Resting and squeeze pressures and balloon volume at maximum tolerable limit were higher, and the sphincter tended to be shorter in FED. Prolonged straining, incomplete evacuation, and squeeze pressure were significant on multivariate analysis. Manometry and defecography abnormalities were commoner among the female FED patients.


FED is not uncommon, which fulfills the Rome III criteria for IBS, and prolonged straining may be suggestive; abnormal defecography and manometry are commoner in female.


Anorectal manometry Chronic constipation Functional gastrointestinal disorders Irritable bowel syndrome 



The authors thank Mr. Raghunath of the Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology and Motility Laboratory at SGPGI, Lucknow, for his technical support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

UCG, AB, and AM declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics statement

The authors declare that the study was performed in a manner to conform with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and 2008, concerning Human and Animal Rights, and the authors followed the policy concerning informed consent as shown on


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Copyright information

© Indian Society of Gastroenterology 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GastroenterologySanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical SciencesLucknowIndia

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