Epidemiology and symptom profile of gastroesophageal reflux in the Indian population: Report of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology Task Force

  • Shobna J. Bhatia
  • D. Nageshwar Reddy
  • Uday C. Ghoshal
  • V. Jayanthi
  • Philip Abraham
  • Gourdas Choudhuri
  • S. L. Broor
  • Vineet Ahuja
  • Philip Augustine
  • V. Balakrishnan
  • D. K. Bhasin
  • Naresh Bhat
  • Ashok Chacko
  • Sunil Dadhich
  • G. K. Dhali
  • Pankaj S. Dhawan
  • Manisha Dwivedi
  • Mahesh K. Goenka
  • Abraham Koshy
  • Ajay Kumar
  • Sri Prakash Misra
  • Shrikant Mukewar
  • E. PedaVeer Raju
  • K. T. Shenoy
  • S. P. Singh
  • Ajit Sood
  • R. Srinivasan
ISG Task Force Report

Abstract

Background

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its complications are thought to be infrequent in India; there are no data from India on the prevalence of and risk factors for GERD. The Indian Society of Gastroenterology formed a task force aiming to study: (a) the frequency and profile of GERD in India, (b) factors including diet associated with GERD.

Methods

In this prospective, multi-center (12 centers) study, data were obtained using a questionnaire from 3224 subjects regarding the frequency, severity and duration of heartburn, regurgitation and other symptoms of GERD. Data were also obtained regarding their dietary habits, addictions, and lifestyle, and whether any of these were related or had been altered because of symptoms. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods.

Results

Two hundred and forty-five (7.6%) of 3224 subjects had heartburn and/or regurgitation at least once a week. On univariate analysis, older age (OR 1.012; 95% CI 1.003–1.021), consumption of non-vegetarian and fried foods, aerated drinks, tea/coffee were associated with GERD. Frequency of smoking was similar among subjects with or without GERD. Body mass index (BMI) was similar in subjects with and without GERD. On multivariate analysis, consumption of non-vegetarian food was independently associated with GERD symptoms. Overlap with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome was not uncommon; 21% reported difficulty in passage of stool and 9% had mucus in stools. About 25% of patients had consulted a doctor previously for their gastrointestinal symptoms.

Conclusion

7.6% of Indian subjects have significant GERD symptoms. Consumption of non-vegetarian foods was an independent predictor of GERD. BMI was comparable among subjects with or without GERD.

Keywords

Asia Epidemiology Esophagus Heartburn Risk factors 

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Copyright information

© Indian Society of Gastroenterology 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shobna J. Bhatia
    • 1
  • D. Nageshwar Reddy
    • 8
  • Uday C. Ghoshal
    • 12
  • V. Jayanthi
    • 5
  • Philip Abraham
    • 14
  • Gourdas Choudhuri
    • 12
  • S. L. Broor
    • 7
  • Vineet Ahuja
    • 7
  • Philip Augustine
    • 10
  • V. Balakrishnan
    • 10
  • D. K. Bhasin
    • 4
  • Naresh Bhat
    • 3
  • Ashok Chacko
    • 17
  • Sunil Dadhich
    • 9
  • G. K. Dhali
    • 11
  • Pankaj S. Dhawan
    • 14
  • Manisha Dwivedi
    • 2
  • Mahesh K. Goenka
    • 11
  • Abraham Koshy
    • 3
  • Ajay Kumar
    • 7
  • Sri Prakash Misra
    • 2
  • Shrikant Mukewar
    • 15
  • E. PedaVeer Raju
    • 18
  • K. T. Shenoy
    • 16
  • S. P. Singh
    • 6
  • Ajit Sood
    • 13
  • R. Srinivasan
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of GastroenterologySeth G S Medical College and K E M HospitalMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.AllahabadIndia
  3. 3.BengaluruIndia
  4. 4.ChandigarhIndia
  5. 5.ChennaiIndia
  6. 6.CuttackIndia
  7. 7.DelhiIndia
  8. 8.HyderabadIndia
  9. 9.JodhpurIndia
  10. 10.KochiIndia
  11. 11.KolkataIndia
  12. 12.LucknowIndia
  13. 13.LudhianaIndia
  14. 14.MumbaiIndia
  15. 15.NagpurIndia
  16. 16.ThiruvananthapuramIndia
  17. 17.VelloreIndia
  18. 18.VishakhapatnamIndia

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