Congenital Maxillomandibular Syngnathia: Review of Literature and Proposed New Classification System

  • Vijay KumarEmail author
  • Vidya Rattan
  • Sachin Rai
Clinical Paper



Maxillomandibular fusion (syngnathia) is a rare craniofacial anomaly. It occurs as either fibrous (synechiae) or bony (synostosis) fusion of jaw or fusion of mandible to zygoma, tuberosity, hard palate and temporal bone. There are several documentations delineating this condition but owing to its varying presentation, association with both intraoral and extraoral anomalies and syndromes, reviewing it has been as uphill task. The non-unanimous description of cases in the literature and the use of different nomenclatures make it difficult to classify this condition.


Extensive search of the literature was done from the year 1936 to 2018 which included a total of 118 cases with 62 cases of bony fusion, 48 cases of fibrous fusion and 8 cases of combined fusion, i.e., fibrous on one site and bony on another side.


This paper proposes a novel, simple and explicit classification system on the basis of nature of fusing tissues, location and extent, association with syndrome after reviewing the existing literature. Furthermore, this review reports 4 new cases of syngnathia along with their clinical, radiographic features and their management protocol.


This classification can be generalized to all the cases of syngnathia and can further facilitate in its appropriate diagnosis and treatment plan.


Anomaly Fusion Syngnathia Synechiae Temporomandibular joint 



None to declare.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Burket LW (1936) Congenital bony temporomandibular ankylosis and facial hemiatrophy. Review of the literature and report of a case. J Am Med Ass 106:1719–1722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dawson KH, Gruss JS, Myall RW (1997) Congenital bony syngnathia: a proposed classification. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 34:141–146PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Laster Z, Temkin D, Zarfin Y, Kushnir A (2001) Complete bony fusion of the mandible to the zygomatic complex and maxillary tuberosity: case report and review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 30:75–79PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Daniels JS (2004) Congenital maxillomandibular fusion: a case report and review of the literature. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 32:135–139PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fallahi HR, Naeini M, Mahmoudi M, Javaherforoosh F (2010) Congenital zygomatico-maxillo-mandibular fusion: a brief case report and review of literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 39:930–933PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hegab A, El-Madawy A, Shawkat WM (2012) Congenital maxillomandibular fusion: a report of three cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 41:1248–1252PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Naikmasur VG, Sattur AP, Joshi SK, Rai A (2010) Congenital syngnathia: case report and review of literature. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 47:654–660PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tauro DP, Kalappanavar NK, Kiran HY, Girhe VJ (2012) Congenital zygomatico-mandibular fusion (pseudo-syngnathia?) in conjunction with unilateral anophthalmia: review of terminology and classification. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 49(5):626–629PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Patterson G (1961) Aglossia congenita with bony fusion of the jaw. Acta Chir Scand 122:93–95Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Salleh NM (1965) Congenital partial fusion of the maxilla and mandible. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 20:74–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hoggins GS (1969) Aglossia congenita with bony fusion of the jaws. Br J Oral Surg 7:63–65PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alvarez GE (1976) The aglossia-adactylia syndrome. Br J Plast Surg 29:175–178PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Miskinyar SAC (1979) Congenital mandibulomaxillary fusion. Plast Reconstr Surg 63:120PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Simpson JR, Maves MD (1985) Congenital syngnathia or fusion of the gums and jaws. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 93:96–99PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dobrow B (1983) Syngnathia and multiple defects. J Clin Dysmorphol 1:5–7PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brown TCK (1984) The problems of anesthesia for a neonate with fused jaws. Anaesthesia 39:695–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brown AG, Marsh JL (1990) Agnathia and associated malformations: a case report. Cleft Palate J 27:415–418PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Agrawal K, Chandra SS, Sreekumar NS (1993) Congenital bilateral intermaxillary bony fusion. Ann Plast Surg 30:163–166PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gartlan MG, Davies J, Smith RJH (1993) Congenital oral synechiae. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 102:186–197PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Arshad AR, Goh CS (1994) Hypoglossia congenita with anterior maxillo-mandibular fusion. Br J Plast Surg 47:139–141PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kamata S, Satoh K, Uemara T, Onizuka T (1996) Congenital bilateral zygomatico-mandibular fusion with mandibular hypoplasia. Br J Plast Surg 49:251–253PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Behnia H, Shamse MG (1996) Congenital unilateral fusion of the mandibular and maxillary alveolar ridges, temporomandibular joint, and coronoid process. A case report. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 54:773–776PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rao S, Oak S, Wagh M, Kulkarni B (1997) Congenital midline palatomandibular bony fusion with a mandibular cleft and a bifid tongue. Br J Plast Surg 50:139–141PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Knoll B, Karas D, Persing JA, Shin J (2000) Complete congenital bony syngnathia in a case of oromandibular limb hypogenesis syndrome. J Craniofac Surg 11:398–404PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ugurlu K, Karsidag S, Huthut I, Yildiz K, Bas L (2005) Congenital fusion of the maxilla and mandible. J Craniofac Surg 16:287–291PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yazdi I, Fakhraee AH (2000) Congenital fusion of maxilla and mandible (bony syngnathia): a case report. Arch Iran Med 3:1–4Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nikolic S, Lukac B, Bokun J, Jasovic A (2006) Unilateral mandibulomaxillar synostosis as a single anomaly in a newborn. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 64:843–846PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mir MA, Hafeez A, Zargar HR, Rasool A, Mohsin M (2007) Syngnathia without any other associated anomaly: a very rare case report. Internet J Plast Surg 4:1Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Trigg DJ, Mau IT, Rosbe KW (2007) Complete bony syngnathia: report of a case and review. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 133:187–190PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vahidi K, Joe BN, Glenn OA, Barkovich AJ, Filly R (2007) Prenatal imaging of congenital maxillomandibular fusion: case report and review of the literature. J Ultrasound Med 26:381–389PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gupta RK, Jadhav V, Gupta A, Sanghvi B, Shah H (2008) Congenital alveolar fusion. J Pediatr Surg 43:1421–1425PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ajike SO, Adeosun OO, Adebayo ET, Anyiam JO, Jalo I, Chom ND (2008) Congenital bilateral fusion of the maxillomandibular alveolar processes with craniosynostosis: report of a rare case. Niger J Clin Pract 11(1):78–81Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Foroutan HR, Rahsepar B, Eghbal MH, Rahimi A, BahadorA Amini A et al (2009) Xerografting as a novel procedure in the management of syngnathia. Iran J Med Sci 34(1):68–71Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Subramanian B, Agrawal K, Panda K (2010) Congenital fusion of the jaws: a management protocol. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 39:925–929PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    El-Hakim IE, Al-Sebaei MO, Abuzennada S, AlYamani AO (2010) Congenital fusion of the maxilla and mandible (congenital bony syngnathia). Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 39:933–936PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Halli R, Kharkar V, Kini Y, Rudagi BM (2010) Congenital unilateral maxillo-mandibulo-zygomatic fusion (syngnathia): a case report in an 8-year-old boy. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 39:500–502PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Konas E, Tuncbilek G, Kayikcioglu A, Ozgur F (2010) Congenital bony syngnathia with unilateral palatal shelf and soft palate agenesis. J Craniofac Surg 21:1645–1647PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Koeda S, Suzuki T, Nei H, Inahara H, Takata Y, Goto S et al (2010) A case of congenital unilateral maxillo-mandibular bony fusion in an 8-year-old girl. Asian J Oral Maxillofac Surg 22(4):220–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kim Chul-Hwan et al (2012) Congenital syngnathia: a case report. J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 38:171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Broome M, Vial Y, Jacquemont S, Sergi C, Kamnasaran D, Giannoni E (2016) Complete maxillo-mandibular syngnathia in a newborn with multiple congenital malformations. Pediatr Neonatol 57(1):65–68PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    El-Madi A, Khattala K, Rami M, Bouabdallah Y (2014) Bilateral maxillo-mandibular syngnathia in a newborn. J Neonatal Surg 3(4):53PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rahaman MM, Kabir MI, Rabby MA, Rahman MM, Uddin MN, Rashid MH et al (2014) Congenital syngnathia in bangladesh: a very rare case report. Med Today 26(2):114–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mahgoub L, Joynt C, Bhargava R, Davies D, El-Hakim H, Dobrovolsky W (2015) Postnatal diagnosis of a baby with multiple rare congenital anomalies including syngnathia, brain dysmorphism, and skin pigmentation. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 52(6):201–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Raban MS, Muller SJ, Harrison MC (2015) An unusual case of congenital syngnathia. J Neonatal Biol 4:192Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Patel SD, Porras S, Lypka M (2015) Journey to chew: a case of maxillary duplication and bony syngnathia. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 43(1):57–61PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Konas E, Aliyev A, Tunçbilek G (2015) Congenital maxillomandibular syngnathia: a new management technique using distraction techniques. J Craniofac Surg 26(1):e68–e70PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kumar S, Bhati B, Kukreja P, Mishra V, Bhatnagar A (2016) Isolated bony syngnathia. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 54(7):844–845PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rough J, Hindin DI, Lee JC, Bradley JP (2016) Correction of unilateral congenital zygomatico-mandibular fusion. J Craniofac Surg 27(1):e109–e111PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Özel A, Güven GŞ, Dilaver E, Uçkan S (2017) Unilateral complex syngnathia of the maxilla, mandible, and zygomatic complex in a newborn baby. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 55(2):211–212PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    James O, Ibikunle A, Adeyemo W, Ogunlewe M, Ladeinde A (2016) Maxillomandibular syngnathia in an adult Nigerian patient. J Clin Sci 13(1):40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Al-Mahdi AH, Koppel DA, Al-Jumaily HA, Mohammed AA, Boyd D (2016) Congenital bilateral zygomatico-maxillo-mandibular fusion associated with gum fusion. J Craniofac Sur 27(1):e20–e23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mohan A (2018) Syngnathia-congenital maxillo-mandibular fusion: case report and literature review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 76(5):1096.e1–1096.e6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Casas MC, Giana RS, Andújar MA, Hernández NA, Mialdea AL (2018) Oral malformation with complete maxillomandibular bone fusion (congenital syngnathia). Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 57(2):325–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Duro EA, Benitez SM, Paternina AD (2018) Early treatment of congenital syngnathia. A case report. J Pediatr Neonatal Individ Med (JPNIM) 7(1):e070119. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Snijman PC, Prinsloo JG (1966) Congenital fusion of the gums. Am J Dis Child 112:593–595PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fish J (1973) Congenital intermaxillary fibrous band. J Dent 1(3):117–119PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Alfrey DD, Ward CF, Hardwood IR, Mannino FL (1979) Airway management for a neonate with congenital fusion of jaws. Anaesthesiology 51(4):340–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gassner I, Muller W, Rosssler H, Kofler J, Mittersteiler G (1979) Familial occurrence of syngnathia congenita syndrome. Clin Genet 15:241–244PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sternberg N, Sahger U, Golan J, Eidelman AI, BenHur N (1983) Congenital fusion of the gums with bilateral fusion of the temporomandibular joints. Plast Reconstr Surg 72:385–387PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Verdi GD, O’Neal B (1984) Cleft palate and congenital alveolar synechia syndrome. Plast Reconstr Surg 74(5):684–686PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Seraj MA, Yousif M, Channa AB (1984) Anaesthetic management of congenital fusion of the jaws in a neonate. Anaesthesia 39:695–698PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dinardo NM, Christian JM, Bennet JA, Shutack JG (1989) Cleft palate lateral synechia syndrome. Review of the literature and case report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 68(5):565–566PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Goodacre TE, Wallace AF (1990) Congenital alveolar fusion. Br J Plast Surg 43:203–209PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Itoh M, Takato T, Park S, Kitano Y, Kitano I (1992) Congenital alveolar adhesions. Ann Plast Surg 29:89–91PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Valnicek SM, Clarke HM (1993) Syngnathia: a report of two cases. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 30:582–585PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Akapata O, Ojo MA, Obuekwe O (1995) Congenital oral adhesion (syngnathia) with total cleft palate in nigerian child. Cleft Plate Craniofac J 32:529–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Haramis HT, Apesos J (1995) Cleft palate and congenital lateral alveolar synechiae syndrome: case presentation and literature review. Ann Plast Surg 34:424–430PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Grippaudo ER, Kennedy DC (1998) Oromandibular-limb hypogenesis syndromes: a case of aglossia with an intraoral band. Br J Plast Surg 51:480–483PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Puvabanditsin S, Garrow E, Sitburana O, Avila FM, Nabong MY, Biswas A (2003) Syngnathia and Van der Woude syndrome: a case report and literature. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 40(1):104e–106eCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Denion E, Capon N, Martinot V, Pellerin P (2002) Neonatal permanent jaw construction because of synechiae and Pierre Robin sequence in a child with van der Woude syndrome. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 39:115–119PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Dalal M, Davison PM (2002) Cleft palate congenital alveolar synechiae syndrome: case report and review. Br J Surg 55:256–257Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Haydar SG, Tercan A, Uckan S, Gurakan B (2003) Congenital gum synechiae as an isolated anomaly: a case report. J Clin Pediatr Dent 28:81–83PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Murphy SM, Rea S, McGovern E, Fleming P, Orr D (2004) Cleft palate and congenital synechiae syndrome: a case report. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 41:206PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Patel V, Theroux M, Reilly J (2003) Popliteal pterygium syndrome with syngnathia. Paediatr Anaesth 13:80–82PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tanrikulu R, Erol B, Görgün B, Ilhan Ö (2005) Congenital alveolar synechiae—a case report. Br Dent J 198(2):81PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sahin U, Ozdil K, Uscetin I, Sayılkan S, Oktem F, Yuce S et al (2005) Cleft palate and congenital alveolar synechiae syndrome. Plast Reconstr Surg 115(4):1212–1213PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Tomlinson JK, Liem NT, Savarirayan R, Meara JG (2006) Isolated and syndromic syngnathism—management, implications, and genetics. Ann Plast Surg 57:231–235PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mortazavi SH, Motamedi MHK (2007) Congenital fusion of the jaws. Indian J Pediatr 74(4):416–418PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gahm C, Kuylenstierna R, Papatziamos G (2007) Popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS) with intra-alveolar syngnathia: a discussion of anesthetic and surgical considerations. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 71(10):1613–1616PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jansen AH, Johnston G (2008) The Shikani Optical Stylet: a useful adjunct to airway management in a neonate with popliteal pterygium syndrome. Pediatr Anesth 18:188–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Parkins GE, Boamah MO (2009) Congenital maxillomandibular syngnathia: case report. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 37:276–278PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Donepudi SK, Stocks RM, Pivnick EK, Mineck C, Thomson JW (2009) Cleft palate lateral synechia syndrome: an opportunity for surgical closure. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 73:861–866PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bali R, Sharma P, Jain S, Thapar D (2010) Congenital fibrous maxillomandibular fusion. J Maxillofac Oral Surg 9(3):277–279PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Martin LP, Perez MM, Garcıa EG, Martın-Moro JG, Gonzalez JI, Garcia MB (2011) Atypical case of congenital maxillomandibular fusion with duplication of the craniofacial midline. Craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr 4:113–120PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bozdag S, Erdeve O, Konas E, Tuncbilek G, Dilmen U (2011) Management of serious isolated gingival synechia in a newborn: case report and review of the literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 40:1428–1431PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Reddy MP, Raghu SR (2012) Congenital fusion of jaw and ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum: malformation and multiple systems anomaly. Indian J Plast Surg 45:557–559PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Turksen Z, Ozakpinar HR, Tellioglu AT (2012) A case of syngnathia, cleft palate and hypospadias: An isolated case or syndromic syngnathism? J Craniomaxillofac Surg 40:8–10PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lonnée H, Rashad A, Rahimi GR, Labat F (2013) Airway management of an infant presenting with syngnathia for surgical correction. Open J Anesthesiol 3(01):35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Posey JE, Dariya V, Edmonds JL, Lee EI, Probst FJ, Premkumar MH (2014) Syngnathia and obstructive apnea in a case of popliteal pterygium syndrome. Eur J Pediatr 173(12):1741–1744PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cerrati EW, Ahmed OH, Rickert SM (2015) Isolated congenital maxillomandibular synechiae. Am J Otolaryngol 36(5):707–709PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Saxena KN, Goel V, Taneja B, Gaba P (2016) Fiber optic intubation of a neonate with syngnathia under local anesthesia and sedation. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 32(1):128–130PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sisti A, Freda N, Giacomina A, Gatti GL (2017) Popliteal pterygium syndrome with syngnathia. J Craniofac Surg 28(3):e250–e251PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Traaholt LM (1990) Cleft lip and palate associated with alveolar synechia and filiform palpebral synechia. Plast Reconstr Surg 86:337–339PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ugurlu K, Turan T, Urganci N, Gozu A, Gunay Y, Bas L (1999) Fusion of maxillary and mandibular alveolar process together with a median mandibular cleft: a rare congenital anomaly. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 27(2):105–108PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Verloes A, Raoul M, Genevieve D, Sznajer Y, Demarche M (2004) Bony syngnathia, vertebral segmentation defect, coloboma, microcephaly and mental retardation: confirmation of Dobrow syndrome and review of syndromal syngnathias. Clin Dysmorphol 13:205–211PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Shams MG, Motamedi MH, Abad HL (2006) Congenital fusion of the maxilla and mandible: brief case report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 102:e1–e3PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Shao X, Yang G (2014) Congenital unilateral maxillomandibular fusion. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 52:e20PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ozer AB, Karatepe U, Altun AY, Bolat E (2016) Anesthesia-airway management in a newborn with syngnathia. J Clin Anaesth 34:615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Khasgiwala A, Jangam S, Sharma S, Newaskar V (2016) Congenital bilateral syngnathia and tracheoesophageal fistula: a rare presentation. Contemp Clin Dent 7(4):566PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Humphrey T (1969) The relation between human fetal mouth opening reflexes and closure of the palate. Am J Anat 125:317–344PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Walker BE, Fraser FC (1956) Closure of secondary palate in three strains of mice. J Embryol Exp Morphol 4:176Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Poswillo D (1973) The pathogenesis of the first and second branchial arch syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 35:302–328PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hegtvedt AK (1992) Diagnosis and management of facial asymmetry. In: Peterson LJ (ed) Principles of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 1400–1401Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Nanda R (1970) Maxillomandibular ankylosis and cleft palate in rat embryos. J Dent Res 49:1086–1090PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    He F et al (2014) Directed Bmp4 expression in neural crest cells generates a genetic model for the rare human bony syngnathia birth defect. Dev Biol 391(2):170–181PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Olsson GL, Hallen B (1984) Laryngospasm during anaesthesia. A computer-aided incidence study in 136, 929 patients. Acta Anaesthesiolog Scand 28(5):567–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons of India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unit of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral Health Sciences CentrePostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations