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Congenital Maxillomandibular Syngnathia: Review of Literature and Proposed New Classification System

  • Vijay KumarEmail author
  • Vidya Rattan
  • Sachin Rai
Clinical Paper
  • 7 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

Maxillomandibular fusion (syngnathia) is a rare craniofacial anomaly. It occurs as either fibrous (synechiae) or bony (synostosis) fusion of jaw or fusion of mandible to zygoma, tuberosity, hard palate and temporal bone. There are several documentations delineating this condition but owing to its varying presentation, association with both intraoral and extraoral anomalies and syndromes, reviewing it has been as uphill task. The non-unanimous description of cases in the literature and the use of different nomenclatures make it difficult to classify this condition.

Methods

Extensive search of the literature was done from the year 1936 to 2018 which included a total of 118 cases with 62 cases of bony fusion, 48 cases of fibrous fusion and 8 cases of combined fusion, i.e., fibrous on one site and bony on another side.

Results

This paper proposes a novel, simple and explicit classification system on the basis of nature of fusing tissues, location and extent, association with syndrome after reviewing the existing literature. Furthermore, this review reports 4 new cases of syngnathia along with their clinical, radiographic features and their management protocol.

Conclusions

This classification can be generalized to all the cases of syngnathia and can further facilitate in its appropriate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Keywords

Anomaly Fusion Syngnathia Synechiae Temporomandibular joint 

Notes

Funding

None to declare.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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© The Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons of India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unit of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral Health Sciences CentrePostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia

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