A Study on Metabolic, Nutritional and Biochemical Profile of Tobacco Users With and Without Oral Precancer Lesions

  • Sana Farooqui
  • Shadab MohammadEmail author
  • Saurabh Srivastava
  • Divya Mehrotra
  • Sandeep Bhattacharya
Original Article



The tobacco use and the dietary intake/levels of vitamin C and E, and the trace elements, iron, copper, zinc, and selenium are interrelated with the development of oral precancer. These micronutrients are necessary for maintaining good oral health.


To estimate the nutritional status, vitamin E, C and micronutrient level of zinc, iron, copper, and selenium, and basic vitals in all study groups.

Material Method

The study sample is comprised of 384 subjects. There were three study groups, and in each study group, there were 128 subjects. Group A was tobacco users without oral precancer/dysplasia. Group B was tobacco users with oral precancer (H/P confirmed). Group C was healthy individuals with no history of tobacco or areca nut use and oral precancer. Data have been collected using a standard structured predesigned questionnaire for evaluation of the nutrition level of the subject; 5 mL blood has been collected for estimation of micronutrients; and basic vitals such as pulse rate and blood pressure have been examined using the digital machine. Questionnaire data will also be entered in the worksheet for the purpose of analysis. The analysis will be performed using the commercially available Statistical Package SPSS.


The serum level of zinc, iron, selenium, vitamin E and C was decreasing in Groups A and B, i.e., users with precancer and users without precancer as compared to Group C, i.e., controls. But serum copper level was increasing in Groups A and B, i.e., users with precancer and users without precancer, and the level was found to be decreased in Group C, i.e., controls. Later on, in the present study, basic vitals such as blood pressure and pulse rate of all the study subjects in all the three groups were clinically examined. No significant differences were found in blood pressure, pulse rate (radial pulse), and height in all groups. But the weight was slightly higher in Groups A and B as compared to Group C.


Diet plays an aggressive role in the development of oral precancer. The deficiency of certain micro nutrients may lead to disease progression. We can say that a healthy diet comprising of vegetarian and plain food may lead to solving issues of oral health.


The above-highlighted text shows that micronutrients play dominant role in maintenance of oral health and its deficiency may result in the growth of oral precancer. So involving diet rich in zinc, iron, selenium, vitamin E and C may help in maintaining healthy nation.


Oral precancer Tobacco Micronutrients 



This study was funded by University Grants Commission (201011MANF-MUS-UTT4195).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest in this research work for the publication.

Ethical Approval

The patients enrolled for study were briefed about the study and asked to fill a consent form. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India.


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Copyright information

© The Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons of India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sana Farooqui
    • 1
  • Shadab Mohammad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Saurabh Srivastava
    • 2
  • Divya Mehrotra
    • 1
  • Sandeep Bhattacharya
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryKing George’s Medical UniversityLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacy, School of Medical and Allied SciencesGalgotias UniversityGreater NoidaIndia
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyKing George’s Medical UniversityLucknowIndia

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