Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 308–314 | Cite as

Effect of Diode Laser on Healing of Tooth Extraction Socket: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

  • Shehab Ahmed HamadEmail author
  • Jandar S. Naif
  • Mahdi A. Abdullah
Research Paper



To evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy on healing of extracted tooth socket of healthy rabbits.


The sample of this study was 20 male rabbits of 2–2.5 kg weight with age range of 8–12 months. Right and left lower first premolar teeth were extracted. The extraction sockets of lower right first premolar were irradiated with 0.9 W gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser for 5 min, immediately after extraction and then every 72 h for the next 12 days. The extraction socket of left side were not exposed to laser and served as a control. The animals were sacrificed after 7, 14, 30 and 45 days and the experimental and control sockets were removed from the harvested mandibles and prepared for haematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson’s stain. The prepared slides were examined under light microscope for histological and histomorphometric examination.


The histological examination showed that diode laser-treated sockets demonstrated early formed new bone with faster maturation of primary bone to secondary bone as compared to non-treated control sockets. Histomorphometric analysis revealed a statistically significant increase in the density and volume of trabecular bone in laser-treated sockets than control sockets.


Diode laser application to tooth extraction socket has a positive effect on bone formation.


Diode laser Healing Rabbit Tooth socket 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests. All applicable international, national, and institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.


  1. 1.
    Hita-Iglesias P, Torres-Lagares D, Flores-Ruiz R, Magallanes-Abad N, Basallote-Gonzalez M, Gutierrez-Perez J (2008) Effectiveness of chlorhexidine gel versus chlorhexidine rinse in reducing alveolar osteitis in mandibular third molar surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 66(3):441–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Eshghpour M, Moradi A, Nejat AH (2013) Dry socket following tooth extraction in an Iranian Dental Center: incidence and risk factors. J Dent Mater Tech 2(3):86–91Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Turner CH, Forwood MR, Rho JY, Yoshikawa T (1994) Mechanical loading thresholds for lamellar and woven bone formation. J Bone Miner Res 9(1):87–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rubin CT, Lanyon LE (1985) Regulation of bone mass by mechanical strain magnitude. Calcif Tissue Int 37(4):411–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kooistra BW, Jain A, Hanson BP (2009) Electrical stimulation: nonunions. Indian J Orthop 43(2):149–155PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Adie S, Harris IA, Naylor JM, Rae H, Dao A, Yong S, Ying V (2011) Pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation for acute tibial shaft fractures: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am 93(17):1569–1576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hasuike A, Sato S, Udagawa A, Ando K, Arai Y, Ito K (2011) In vivo bone regenerative effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in rat calvarial defects. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodonto 111(1):12–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fındık Y, Baykul T (2014) Effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on autogenous bone graft healing. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 117(3):255–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    El-Ghannam A (2005) Bone reconstruction: from bioceramics to tissue engineering. Expert Rev Med Devices 2(1):87–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McCarthy TL, Ji C, Centrella M (2000) Links among growth factors, hormones, and nuclear factors with essential roles in bone formation. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 11(4):409–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kazancioglu HO, Ezirganli S, Aydin MS (2013) Effects of laser and ozone therapies on bone healing in the calvarial defects. Craniofac Surg 24(6):2141–2146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nagata MJ, Santinoni CS, Pola NM, de Campos N, Messora MR, Bomfim SR, Ervolino E, Fucini SE, Faleiros PL, Garcia VG, Bosco AF (2013) Bone marrow aspirate combined with low-level laser therapy: a new therapeutic approach to enhance bone healing. Photochem Photobiol B 121:6–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Walsh LJ (1997) The current status of low level laser therapy in dentistry. Part 1. Soft tissue applications. Aust Dent J 42(4):247–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kawasaki K, Shimizu N (2000) Effects of low-energy laser irradiation on bone remodeling during experimental tooth movement in rats. Lasers Surg Med 26(3):282–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Park JJ, Kang KL (2012) Effect of 980-nm GaAlAs diode laser irradiation on healing of extraction sockets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a pilot study. Lasers Med Sci 27(1):223–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Karu TI, Pyatibrat LV, Kolyakov SF, Afanasyeva NI (2005) Absorption measurements of a cell monolayer relevant to phototherapy: reduction of cytochrome c oxidase under near IR radiation. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 81(2):98–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brawn PR, Kwong-Hing A (2007) Histologic comparison of light emitting diode phototherapy-treated hydroxyapatite-grafted extraction sockets: a same-mouth case study. Implant Dent 16(2):204–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Woodruff LD, Bounkeo JM, Brannon WM, Dawes KS, Barham CD, Waddell DL, Enwemeka S (2004) The efficacy of laser therapy in wound repair: a meta-analysis of the literature. Meta-analysis. Photomed Laser Surg 22(3):241–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nunamaker DM (1998) Experimental models of fracture repair. Clin Orthop Relat Res 355:S56–S65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    MacNeill SR, Cobb CM, Rapley JW, Glaros AG, Spencer P (1999) In vivo comparison of synthetic osseous graft materials. A preliminary study. J Clin Periodontol 26(4):239–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schmitz JP, Hollinger JO (1986) The critical size defect as an experimental model for craniomandibulofacial nonunions. Clin Orthop Relat Res 205:298–307Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    El-Maghraby EM, El-Rouby DH, Saafan AM (2013) Assessment of the effect of low-energy diode laser irradiation on gamma irradiated rats’ mandibles. Arch Oral Biol 58(7):796–805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Korany NS, Mehannia SS, Hakam HM, El-Maghraby EMF (2012) Evaluation of socket healing in irradiated rats after diode laser exposure (histological and morphometric studies). Arch Oral Biol 57(7):884–891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Garcia VG, da Conceição JM, Fernandes LA, de Almeida JM, Nagata MJ, Bosco AF, Theodoro LH (2013) Effects of LLLT in combination with bisphosphonate on bone healing in critical size defects: a histological and histometric study in rat calvaria. Lasers Med Sci 28(2):407–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nicola RA, Jorgetti Y, Rigau J, Pacheco MT, dos Reis LM, Zangaro RA (2003) Effect of low-power GaAlAs laser (660 nm) on bone structure and cell activity: an experimental animal study. Lasers Med Sci 18(2):89–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Oron U, Yaakobi T, Oron A, Hayam G, Gepstein L, Rubin O, Wolf T, Ben Haim S (2001) Attenuation of infarct size in rats and dogs after myocardial infarction by low-energy laser irradiation. Lasers Surg Med 28(3):204–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ayuk SM, Houreld NN, Abrahamse H (2012) Collagen production in diabetic wounded fibroblasts in response to low-intensity laser irradiation at 660 nm. Diabetes Technol Ther 14(12):1110–1117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yaakobi T, Maltz L, Uoron U (1996) Promotion of bone repair in the cortical bone of the tibia in rats by low energy laser (He–Ne) irradiation. Calcif Tissue Int 59(4):297–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ribeiro DA, Matsumoto MA (2008) Low-level laser therapy improves bone repair in rats treated with anti-inflammatory drugs. J Oral Rehabil 35(12):925–933PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bliziotes M, Murtagh J, Wiren K (1996) Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-like activity and beta-arrestin are expressed in osteoblastic cells. J Bone Miner Res 11(6):820–826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Petri AD, Teixeira LN, Crippa GE, Beloti MM, de Oliveira PT, Rosa AL (2010) Effects of low level laser therapy on human osteoblastic cells grown on titanium. Braz Dent J 21(6):491–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Soleimani M, Abbasnia E, Fathi M, Sahraei H, Fathi Y, Kaka G (2012) The effects of low-level laser irradiation on differentiation and proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neurons and osteoblasts: an in vitro study. Lasers Med Sci 27(2):423–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Saygun I, Nizam N, Ural AU, Serdar MA, Avcu F, Tozum TF (2012) Low-level laser irradiation affects the release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and receptor of IGF-I (IGFBP3) from osteoblasts. Photomed Laser Surg 30(3):149–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bouvet-Gerbettaz S, Merigo E, Rocca JP, Carle GF, Rochet N (2009) Effects of low-level laser therapy on proliferation and differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Lasers Surg Med 41(4):291–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Coombe AR, Ho CT, Darendeliler MA, Hunter N, Philips JR, Chapple CC, Yum LW (2001) The effects of low level laser irradiation on osteoblastic cells. Clin Orthod Res 4(1):3–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gordjestani M, Dermaut L, Thierens H (1994) Infrared laser and bone metabolism: a pilot study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 23(1):54–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Barbosa D, de Souza RA, Xavier M, da Silva FF, Arisawa EA, Villaverde AG (2013) Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone repair in rats: optical densitometry analysis. Lasers Med Sci 28(2):651–656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Guzzardella GA, Torricelli P, Nicoli Aldini N, Giardino R (2001) Laser technology in orthopedics: preliminary study on low power laser therapy to improve the bone-biomaterial interface. Int J Artif Organs 24(12):898–902PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Guzzardella GA, Fini M, Torricelli P, Giavaresi G, Giardino R (2002) Laser stimulation on bone defect healing: an in vitro study. Laser Med Sci 17(3):216–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons of India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shehab Ahmed Hamad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jandar S. Naif
    • 2
  • Mahdi A. Abdullah
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of DentistryHawler Medical UniversityErbilIraq
  2. 2.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of DentistryDuhok UniversityDuhokIraq
  3. 3.Department of Histology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of DuhokDuhokIraq

Personalised recommendations