Trigeminocardiac Reflex: A Reappraisal with Relevance to Maxillofacial Surgery
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The purpose of this paper was to undertake a review of literature on trigeminocardiac reflex in oral and maxillofacial online data-base and discuss the pathophysiology, risk factor assessment, presentation of the reflex, prevention, management with emphasis on the role of the attending anaesthetist and the maxillofacial surgeon.
Materials and Methods
The available literature relevant to oral and maxillofacial surgery in online data-base of the United States National Library of Medicine: Pubmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) was searched. The inclusion criterion was to review published clinical papers, abstracts and evidence based reviews on trigeminocardiac reflex relevant to oral and maxillofacial surgery.
Sixty-five articles were found with the search term "trigeminocardiac reflex" in the literature searched. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria for this study. The relevant data was extracted, tabulated and reviewed to draw evidence based conclusions for the management of trigeminocardiac reflex.
Conclusions were drawn and discussed based on the reviewed maxillofacial literature with emphasis on the anaesthetist’s and the surgeon’s role in the management of this detrimental event in maxillofacial surgical practice.
KeywordsTrigeminocardiac reflex Oculocardiac reflex Maxillofacial surgery Vagus induced bradycardia Bradycardia Achener phenomenon Trigemino-vagal reflex
Conflict of Interest
Authors declare no conflict of interests.
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