Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 373–377 | Cite as

Trigeminocardiac Reflex: A Reappraisal with Relevance to Maxillofacial Surgery

  • Darpan Bhargava
  • Shaji ThomasEmail author
  • Nupur Chakravorty
  • Ashutosh Dutt
Review Paper



The purpose of this paper was to undertake a review of literature on trigeminocardiac reflex in oral and maxillofacial online data-base and discuss the pathophysiology, risk factor assessment, presentation of the reflex, prevention, management with emphasis on the role of the attending anaesthetist and the maxillofacial surgeon.

Materials and Methods

The available literature relevant to oral and maxillofacial surgery in online data-base of the United States National Library of Medicine: Pubmed ( was searched. The inclusion criterion was to review published clinical papers, abstracts and evidence based reviews on trigeminocardiac reflex relevant to oral and maxillofacial surgery.


Sixty-five articles were found with the search term "trigeminocardiac reflex" in the literature searched. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria for this study. The relevant data was extracted, tabulated and reviewed to draw evidence based conclusions for the management of trigeminocardiac reflex.


Conclusions were drawn and discussed based on the reviewed maxillofacial literature with emphasis on the anaesthetist’s and the surgeon’s role in the management of this detrimental event in maxillofacial surgical practice.


Trigeminocardiac reflex Oculocardiac reflex Maxillofacial surgery Vagus induced bradycardia Bradycardia Achener phenomenon Trigemino-vagal reflex 


Conflict of Interest

Authors declare no conflict of interests.


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Copyright information

© Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons of India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darpan Bhargava
    • 1
  • Shaji Thomas
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nupur Chakravorty
    • 2
  • Ashutosh Dutt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peoples College of Dental Sciences and Research CenterPeoples UniversityBhopalIndia
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyL.N Medical College and Research Center and J.K HospitalBhopalIndia

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