Heart rate and movement pattern in street soccer for homeless women

  • Morten B. Randers
  • Jannick Marschall
  • Tina-Thea Nielsen
  • Andreas Møller
  • Mette K. Zebis
  • Peter Krustrup
Main Article


Street soccer has been shown to be effective in improving cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness in homeless men, due to high heart rate (HR) and multiple intense actions. The purpose of this study was to investigate HR, movement pattern, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), flow and worry during street soccer for homeless women. Fifteen homeless women (30.3 ± 5.0 years [± standard deviation, SD], 1.65 ± 0.08 m, 65.1 ± 11.0 kg, 5 ± 4 years football experience) from three countries participated in 4‑a-side street soccer games in Women’s Homeless World Cup 2015. Mean and peak HR were 174 ± 7 and 188 ± 10 beats per minute (bpm), respectively, and >160 bpm 76 ± 23% of the playing time (11.1 ± 2.6 min). Distance covered per minute was 68.6 ± 8.9 m of which 82 ± 14, 15 ± 6 and 3 ± 3% were covered with low- (0–9 km/h), moderate- (9–13 km/h) and high-speed (>13 km/h) running, respectively. The 43 ± 5, 45 ± 3 and 12 ± 3% of the distance were covered running forward, sideways, and backward, respectively. Player Load was 9.2 ± 1.7 arbitrary units (AU) per minute and the number of accelerations >1.5 ms–2 was 15.3 ± 2.7 per minute. The score for flow was high (5.5 ± 0.8), whereas rating of perceived exertion (RPE) values (4.8 ± 2.5) and the score for worry (4.6 ± 1.3) were moderate. Street soccer for homeless women elicits high HR and a movement pattern comparable and for some parameters even higher than street soccer and recreational football for homeless and untrained men. Street soccer may be a suitable training intervention for homeless women, and especially moderate RPE and high flow score speaks in favour of an expectation of high participation and adherence.


Small-sided games Recreational football Activity profile Intensity Global positioning system (GPS) Socially deprived 

Herzfrequenz und Bewegungsmuster im Streetsoccer für obdachlose Frauen


Studien zeigen, dass Streetsoccer positive Effekte auf die kardiovaskuläre und muskuloskeletale Fitness obdachloser Männer hat – bedingt durch eine hohe Herzfrequenz (HF) und viele intensive Handlungen. In der vorliegenden Studie sollten HF, Bewegungsmuster, die Bewertung der empfundenen Anstrengung (RPE) sowie Flow und Besorgnis während Streetsoccer-Spielen obdachloser Frauen untersucht werden. Fünfzehn obdachlose Frauen (30,3 ± 5,0 Jahre [± Standardabweichung], 1,65 ± 0,08 m, 65,1 ± 11,0 kg, 5 ± 4 Jahre Fußballerfahrung) aus drei Ländern nahmen im Rahmen der Weltmeisterschaft für obdachlose Frauen 2015 an Streetsoccer-Spielen mit je 4 Spielerinnen pro Mannschaft teil. Die Durchschnitts- und Maximal-HF betrugen 174 ± 7 bzw. 188 ± 10 Schläge pro Minute. Für 76 ± 23 % der Spielzeit (11,1 ± 2,6 min) lag die HF bei >160 Schlägen pro Minute. Die zurückgelegte Wegstrecke pro Minute lag bei 68,6 ± 8,9 m, davon 82 ± 14 %, 15 ± 6 % und 3 ± 3 % in langsamem Lauf (0–9 km/h), mäßigem Lauf (9–13 km/h) bzw. Hochgeschwindigkeitslauf (>13 km/h). Vorwärts‑, Seitwärts- und Rückwertslaufen machten 43 ± 5 %, 45 ± 3 % und 12 ± 3 % der zurückgelegten Strecke aus. Die Spielerbelastung („Player Load“) betrug 9,2 ± 1,7 dimensionslose Einheiten (AU) pro Minute und die Anzahl der Beschleunigungen >1,5 m • s–2 pro Minute lag bei 15,3 ± 2,7. Der Flow-Score war hoch (5,5 ± 0,8), während die RPE-Werte (4,8 ± 2,5) und der Besorgnis-Score (4,6 ± 1,3) mäßig waren. Streetsoccer für obdachlose Frauen führt zu hohen HF und einem Bewegungsmuster, das mit dem von Streetsoccer und Freizeitfußball für obdachlose und nichttrainierte Männer vergleichbar und in manchen Parametern sogar höher ist. Streetsoccer könnte eine geeignete Trainingsintervention für obdachlose Frauen sein. Insbesondere mäßige RPE-Werte und der hohe Flow-Score lassen eine hohe Teilnahme und Adhärenz erwarten.


Spiele auf Kleinfeld Freizeitfußball Aktivitätsprofil Intensität Globales Positionsbestimmungssystem (GPS) Sozial schwächer gestellte Menschen 



We thank the homeless football players for the committed participants, the homeless football organisation OMBOLD for constructive collaboration and support and Jonathan Bredsgaard Randers Thomsen for excellent data support.

Compliance with ethical guidelines

Conflict of interest

M.B. Randers Thomsen, J. Marschall, T.-T. Nielsen, A. Møller, M. Zebis and P. Krustrup declare that they have no competing interests.

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Morten B. Randers
    • 1
  • Jannick Marschall
    • 2
  • Tina-Thea Nielsen
    • 2
    • 3
  • Andreas Møller
    • 3
  • Mette K. Zebis
    • 2
  • Peter Krustrup
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, SDU Sport and Health Sciences Cluster (SHSC)University of Southern DenmarkOdense MDenmark
  2. 2.University College CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Nutrition, Exercise and SportsUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

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