Participation in organized sports, physical education, therapeutic exercises, and non-organized leisure-time physical activity: how does participation differ between childhood cancer outpatients and healthy peers?

  • Julia Daeggelmann
  • Vanessa Rustler
  • Katharina Eckert
  • Vivian Kramp
  • Sandra Stoessel
  • Wilhelm Bloch
  • Freerk T Baumann
Main Article
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Abstract

Most childhood cancer survivors are insufficiently active. Researchers are focusing on strategies to increase physical activity (PA). However, a detailed understanding of participation in specific types of PA is missing, meaning current strategies may lack relevant information. Thus, our study sought to analyze participation in different types of PA commonly engaged in by children: organized sports, physical education in school (PES), therapeutic exercise, and non-organized leisure-time PA. Thirty-eight childhood cancer outpatients and 51 healthy children completed questionnaires. Compared to healthy children, childhood cancer outpatients, especially those who are shortly after cessation of inpatient treatment, participated significantly less often in organized sports and PES and significantly more often in therapeutic exercise compared to the healthy children. Considering organized sports and PES afford children unique social benefits and provide the potential to motivate lifelong activity, future efforts should be placed on ensuring children with cancer can access these types of PA. Educating parents, teachers, and coaches, exploring referral pathways to exercise professionals and providing individual support may enhance participation rates in organized PA and should be investigated.

Keywords

Childhood cancer Outpatient Physical activity Exercise Sport 

Teilnahme an organisiertem Sport, Schulsport, Bewegungstherapie und nicht-organisiertem Freizeitsport: Inwiefern unterscheiden sich die Teilnahmequoten zwischen krebskranken Kindern und Jugendlichen nach stationärer Akuttherapie und gesunden Gleichaltrigen

Zusammenfassung

Kinder und Jugendliche sind nach überstandener Krebserkrankung häufig inaktiv. Die Forschung konzentriert sich auf Strategien zur Erhöhung der körperlichen Aktivität (KA). Doch die Teilnahme an spezifischen Formen von KA ist wenig erforscht, sodass relevante Informationen zur Etablierung erfolgreicher Strategien fehlen. Aus diesem Grund wird in unserer Studie die Teilnahme an altersentsprechenden KA-Formen wie dem organisierten Sport, Schulsport, Bewegungstherapie und nicht-organisiertem Freizeitsport analysiert. 38 Kinder und Jugendliche, die die stationäre onkologische Therapie beendet haben sowie 51 gesunde Kinder und Jugendliche beantworteten Fragebögen. Verglichen mit gesunden Kindern beteiligten sich Kinder und Jugendliche nach onkologischer Akuttherapie signifikant seltener an organisiertem Sport und Schulsport und signifikant häufiger an bewegungstherapeutischen Angeboten – insbesondere wenn die stationäre Behandlung erst kürzlich beendet worden war. Angesichts der besonderen sozialen Vorteile von organisiertem Sport und Schulsport sowie deren Potential, einen langfristig aktiven Lebensstil anzubahnen sollten Initiativen ergriffen werden, um krebskranken Kindern und Jugendlichen die Teilnahme an diesen KA-Formen zu ermöglichen. Die Schulung von Eltern, Lehrern und Trainern, die Entwicklung von Zuweisungspfaden zu Bewegungsexperten sowie die Etablierung von individuellen Beratungs- und Unterstützungsangeboten können die Teilnahme an organisierter KA erhöhen und sollten wissenschaftlich überprüft werden.

Schlüsselwörter

Krebserkrankung im Kindesalter Ambulante Patienten Körperliche Aktivität Bewegung Sport 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank all participants and their families for participation in this study. We would like to acknowledge Amanda Wurz for her review and edits on the final manuscript and Alexander Schenk for designing the figure. We thank Regine Söntgerath for her support in conducting the study at the University Clinic of Leipzig, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Hemostaseology, J. Faber and Marie A. Neu for recruiting patients and conducting this study at the University Medical Center Mainz and A. Prokop for his support in recruiting patients at the outpatient clinic for pediatric hematology/oncology, Clinic for Children and Youth Medicine, Children’s Hospital Amsterdamer Straße in Cologne.

Funding

This study was funded by the German Sports University (Cologne) and I. Laukin-Kleiner (Leipzig).

Compliance with ethical guidelines

Conflict of interest

J. Daeggelmann, V. Rustler, K. Eckert, V. Kramp, S. Stoessel, W. Bloch and F.T. Baumann declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethics approval was obtained for all study sites and the study was carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. In the case of underage patients, consent was obtained from a parent or legal guardian.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sport Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Sport MedicineGerman Sport University CologneCologneGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Sport and Sport ScienceUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  3. 3.Corporate Health ManagementFortbildungsakademie der Wirtschaft gGmbHPlauenGermany
  4. 4.Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and HemostaseologyUniversity Medical Center MainzMainzGermany
  5. 5.Center of Integrated Oncology Cologne/Bonn, Department I of Internal MedicineUniversity Hospital of CologneCologneGermany

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