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Sport activities in daily routine

Situational associations between individual goals, activity characteristics, and affective well-being
  • Stephanie Jeckel
  • Gorden Sudeck
Main articles

Abstract

During the last few years, research interest on interindividual differences in acute affective reactions on sport activities has increased. Moreover, current studies show that besides interindividual differences, substantial intraindividual variations exist. Therefore, we assume that the potential of regulating affective well-being through sport activities varies situationally. This ambulatory assessment study analyzes affective reactions on sport activities in daily routine to identify possible factors for situational variability of changes in affective well-being. First, situational differences in affective well-being (valence, calmness, energetic arousal), goals for sport activities (e.g., regulation of body weight, activation), and activity characteristics (e.g., activity dose, perceived exertion) were analyzed. Second, associations between these parameters and activity characteristics were dissected. Third, associations with affective well-being after sport activities are identified. For 7 days, 25 women and 21 men (Mage = 32 years) participated. Activity characteristics were captured objectively (accelerometer, electrocardiogramm). Affective well-being, situational goals, and perceived exertion were gathered via smartphone. Multilevel analyses confirmed situational heterogeneity of affective well-being (e.g., intraclass-coefficient ICCvalence = 0.48), situational goals (e.g., ICCactivation = 0.59), and activity characteristics (e.g., ICCactivity dose = 0.21). Furthermore, we observed that higher feelings of calmness and stronger situational goals for body weight and activation are followed by a higher activity dose. This higher activity dose comes along with higher energetic arousal after sport activities, whereas higher perceived exertion is followed by lower feelings of calmness. Study results confirm intraindividual variation of affective well-being, specific goals, and activity characteristics. They emphasize the relevance of situational characteristics for the regulation of affective well-being through sport activities.

Keywords

Ambulatory assessment Sport activity Affective well-being Situational intentions Physical Exercise 

Sportaktivitäten im alltäglichen Handlungsverlauf

Situative Assoziationen zwischen individuellen Zielen, Aktivitätsgestaltung und affektivem Befinden

Zusammenfassung

In den letzten Jahren zeigt sich ein verstärktes Forschungsinteresse an interindividuellen Unterschieden in den akuten affektiven Reaktionen auf Sportaktivitäten. Aktuelle Studien zeigen neben interindividuellen Unterschieden zudem substanzielle intraindividuelle Variationen. Eine Annahme ist daher, dass das befindensregulative Potenzial sportlicher Aktivitäten situativ variiert. Die vorliegende ambulante Assessment-Studie analysiert affektive Reaktionen auf Sportaktivitäten im alltäglichen Handlungsverlauf, um mögliche Einflussfaktoren für situativ variable Befindensveränderungen zu identifizieren. Erstens wird gefragt, welche situativen Unterschiede im affektiven Befinden (Valenz, Ruhe, positive Aktivierung), in individuellen Zielen (z. B. Gewichtsregulation, Aktivierung) sowie bei Aktivitätsparametern (z. B. Aktivitätsdosis, wahrgenommene Anstrengung) bestehen. Zweitens wird geprüft, welche Assoziationen diese Merkmale mit der Gestaltung der Aktivitätsparameter aufweisen. Weitergehend werden drittens Zusammenhänge mit dem affektiven Befinden nach Sportaktivitäten ermittelt. An der Studie nahmen 46 Freizeitsportler (25 Frauen; MAlter = 32) über sieben Tage teil. Aktivitätsparameter wurden objektiv erfasst (Akzelerometrie, Elektrokardiogramm). Affektives Befinden, situative Ziele und wahrgenommene Anstrengung wurden Smartphone-basiert erfragt. Die Ergebnisse mehrebenenanalytischer Regressionsmodelle bestätigten die situative Heterogenität des affektiven Befindens (z. B. Intraclass-Koeffizient ICCValenz = 0.48), der situativen Ziele (z. B. ICCAktivierung = 0.59) sowie der Aktivitätsparameter (z. B. ICCAktivitätsdosis = 0.21). Weiter konnte z. B. beobachtet werden, dass höherem Ruheempfinden und stärker ausgeprägten Zielen zur Gewichtsregulation und Aktivierung eine höhere Aktivitätsdosis folgte. Diese höhere Aktivitätsdosis ging mit einer höheren positiven Aktivierung nach Sportaktivitäten einher. Hingegen fiel bei höherer wahrgenommener Anstrengung das Ruheempfinden nach Sportaktivitäten geringer aus. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass affektives Befinden, spezifische Ziele vor der Sportaktivität sowie die Aktivitätsgestaltung intraindividuell variieren. Sie unterstreichen die Bedeutung situativer Merkmale, wenn es um befindensregulatives Potenzial sportlicher Aktivität geht.

Schlüsselwörter

Ambulantes Assessment Sportliche Aktivität Affektives Befinden Situative Intentionen Aktivitätsdosis 

Notes

Compliance with ethical guidelines

Conflict of interest

S. Jeckel and G. Sudeck state that there are no conflicts of interest.

All procedures performed in the study involving human participants were in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Sport ScienceEberhard-Karls University TübingenTübingenGermany

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