RISA: routing scheme for Internet of Things using shuffled frog leaping optimization algorithm

  • Saeid Jedari Jazebi
  • Ali GhaffariEmail author
Original Research


Internet of Things (IoT) has emerged with the recent developments in different technologies such as smart sensors, radio frequency identifier (RFID), wireless networks and communication protocols with various applications. However, gathering large amounts of multimedia data from IoT applications cause traffic congestion. Congestion can affect network quality of service (QoS) parameters such as latency and packet delivery rate (PDR). On the other hand, providing appropriate packet routing scheme in IoT is an important issue. Hence, in this paper, we propose a routing scheme for IoT using shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA). RISA uses SFLA to find a content-based path between the source and destination nodes. RISA can reduce energy consumption and improve the network lifetime using an appropriate data aggregation scheme. The simulation results of the proposed method in Matlab software show that the proposed method is able to optimize the power consumption, network lifetime, throughput, and PDR.


IoT Shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA) Routing Content-oriented communication 



  1. Azari L, Ghaffari A (2015) Proposing a novel method based on network-coding for optimizing error recovery in wireless sensor networks. Indian J Sci Technol 8:859–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bouaziz M, Rachedi A, Belghith A, Berbineau M, Al-Ahmadi S (2019) EMA-RPL: energy and mobility aware routing for the internet of mobile things. Future Gener Comput Syst 97:247–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chi Q, Yan H, Zhang C, Pang Z, Da Xu L (2014) A reconfigurable smart sensor interface for industrial WSN in IoT environment. IEEE Trans Ind Inf 10:1417–1425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Eusuff M, Lansey K, Pasha F (2006) Shuffled frog-leaping algorithm: a memetic meta-heuristic for discrete optimization. Eng Optim 38:129–154MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fadeel KQA, El-Sayed K (2015) ESMRF: enhanced stateless multicast RPL forwarding for IPv6-based low-power and lossy networks. In: Proceedings of the 2015 workshop on IoT challenges in mobile and industrial systems, pp 19–24Google Scholar
  6. Fotouhi H, Moreira D, Alves M, Yomsi PM (2017) mRPL + : a mobility management framework in RPL/6LoWPAN. Comput Commun 104:34–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gaddour O, Koubâa A, Baccour N, Abid M (2014) OF-FL: QoS-aware fuzzy logic objective function for the RPL routing protocol. In: 2014 12th International symposium on modeling and optimization in mobile, ad hoc, and wireless networks (WiOpt), pp 365–372Google Scholar
  8. Gaddour O, Koubäa A, Rangarajan R, Cheikhrouhou O, Tovar E, Abid M (2014) Co-RPL: RPL routing for mobile low power wireless sensor networks using Corona mechanism. In: Proceedings of the 9th IEEE international symposium on industrial embedded systems (SIES 2014), pp 200–209Google Scholar
  9. Gaddour O, Koubâa A, Abid M (2015) Quality-of-service aware routing for static and mobile IPv6-based low-power and lossy sensor networks using RPL. Ad Hoc Netw 33:233–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ghaffari A, Takanloo VA (2011) QoS-based routing protocol with load balancing for wireless multimedia sensor networks using genetic algorithm. World Appl Sci J 15:1659–1666Google Scholar
  11. Hong K-S, Choi L (2011) DAG-based multipath routing for mobile sensor networks. ICTC 2011:261–266Google Scholar
  12. Iova O, Theoleyre F, Noel T (2015) Using multiparent routing in RPL to increase the stability and the lifetime of the network. Ad Hoc Netw 29:45–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jin Y, Gormus S, Kulkarni P, Sooriyabandara M (2016) Content centric routing in IoT networks and its integration in RPL. Comput Commun 89:87–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Khabiri M, Ghaffari A (2018) Energy-aware clustering-based routing in wireless sensor networks using cuckoo optimization algorithm. Wirel Pers Commun 98:2473–2495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kharrufa H, Al-Kashoash H, Al-Nidawi Y, Mosquera MQ, Kemp AH (2017) Dynamic RPL for multi-hop routing in IoT applications. In: 2017 13th Annual Conference on wireless on-demand network systems and services (WONS), pp 100–103Google Scholar
  16. Kim H-S, Cho H, Kim H, Bahk S (2017) DT-RPL: diverse bidirectional traffic delivery through RPL routing protocol in low power and lossy networks. Comput Netw 126:150–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ko J, Chang M (2014) Momoro: providing mobility support for low-power wireless applications. IEEE Syst J 9:585–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lamaazi H, Benamar N, Jara AJ (2018) RPL-based networks in static and mobile environment: a performance assessment analysis. J King Saud Univ Comp Inf Sci 30:320–333Google Scholar
  19. Li J, Silva BN, Diyan M, Cao Z, Han K (2018) A clustering based routing algorithm in IoT aware wireless mesh networks. Sustain Cities Soc 40:657–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lorente GG, Lemmens B, Carlier M, Braeken A, Steenhaut K (2017) BMRF: bidirectional multicast RPL forwarding. Ad Hoc Netw 54:69–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mohammadi P, Ghaffari A (2019) Defending against flooding attacks in mobile ad-hoc networks based on statistical analysis. Wirel Pers Commun 106:365–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mosavvar I, Ghaffari A (2019) Data aggregation in wireless sensor networks using firefly algorithm. Wirel Pers Commun 104:307–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mottaghinia Z, Ghaffari A (2018) Fuzzy logic based distance and energy-aware routing protocol in delay-tolerant mobile sensor networks. Wirel Pers Commun 100:957–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pourghebleh B, Hayyolalam V (2019) A comprehensive and systematic review of the load balancing mechanisms in the Internet of Things. Cluster Comput. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Preeth SSL, Dhanalakshmi R, Kumar R, Shakeel PM (2018) An adaptive fuzzy rule based energy efficient clustering and immune-inspired routing protocol for WSN-assisted IoT system. J Ambient Intell Humaniz Comput, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  26. Tang W, Ma X, Huang J, Wei J (2016) Toward improved RPL: a congestion avoidance multipath routing protocol with time factor for wireless sensor networks. J Sens 2016:11Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Engineering, Tabriz BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTabrizIran

Personalised recommendations