Engineering an advanced geo-location augmented reality framework for smart mobile devices

  • Ugo ErraEmail author
  • Nicola Capece
Original Research


We present a client–server framework for the development of mobile applications that use augmented reality to visualize geo-located data. We provide a scalable and flexible architecture for development and management of the client, server, and data that are used by the applications. The idea is based on the concept of a layer that contains information related to the real environment that is displayed by the device. Information that enhances reality is identified as points of interest by their geographic coordinates. Layers can also be organized in a hierarchical model as a tree-like structure. We present four case studies that demonstrate the flexibility and generalizability of our framework: management of electrical power line failures, support for hydrogeological monitoring, management of sensor networks, and geo-localization of tourist attractions.


Augmented reality Geo-location augmented eeality Mobile applications 


  1. Azuma RT (1997) A survey of augmented reality. Presence Teleoper Virtual Environ 6(4):355–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bane R, Hollerer T (2004) Interactive tools for virtual X-ray vision in mobile augmented reality. In: Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE/ACM international symposium on mixed and augmented reality. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society, pp 231–239Google Scholar
  3. Capece N, Agatiello R, Erra U (2016) A client–server framework for the design of geo-location based augmented reality applications. In: 2016 20th international conference information visualisation (IV), pp 130–135Google Scholar
  4. Carotenuto F, Erra U, Scarano V (2014) Slam map application for tracking lights on car dashboards. In: De Paolis LT, Mongelli A (eds) Augmented and virtual reality: first international conference, AVR 2014, Lecce, Italy, September 17–20, 2014, revised selected papers. Springer, Cham, pp 413–420Google Scholar
  5. Choi J, Jang B, Kim GJ (2010) Organizing and presenting geospatial tags in location-based augmented reality. Pers Ubiquit Comput 15(6):641–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Das P, Zhu M, McLaughlin L, Bilgrami Z, Milanaik RL (2017) Augmented reality video games: new possibilities and implications for children and adolescents. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction 1.2.
  7. Delić A, Domančić M, Vujević P, Drljević N, Botički I (2014, Sept) Augeo: a geolocation-based augmented reality application for vocational geodesy education. In: Elmar (elmar), 2014 56th international symposium, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  8. Delisle M (2009) Mastering phpMyAdmin 3.1 for effective MySQL Management. Packt Publishing, BirminghamGoogle Scholar
  9. Erra U, Colonnese V (2015) Experiences in the development of an augmented reality dressing room. In: De Paolis LT, Mongelli A (eds) Augmented and virtual reality: second international conference, AVR 2015, Lecce, Italy, August 31–September 3, 2015, proceedings. Springer, Cham, pp 467–474Google Scholar
  10. Fielding RT, Taylor RN (2002) Principled design of the modern web architecture. ACM Trans Internet Technol 2(2):115–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Furht B (2011) Handbook of augmented reality. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Geiger P, Schickler M, Pryss R, Schobel J, Reichert M (2014) Location-based mobile augmented reality applications: challenges, examples, lessons learned. In: 10th int’l conference on web information systems and technologies (Webist 2014), special session on business apps, pp 383–394Google Scholar
  13. Geroimenko V (2012) Augmented reality technology and art: the analysis and visualization of evolving conceptual models. In: 16th international conference on information visualisation, IV 2012, Montpellier, France, July 11–13, 2012. IEEE Computer Society, pp 445–453Google Scholar
  14. Global Industry Analysts (2015) Mobile augmented reality (MAR) market trends. Global Industry Analysts.
  15. Hincapie M, Caponio A, Rios H, Mendivil E (2011) An introduction to augmented reality with applications in aeronautical maintenance. In: Transparent optical networks (ICTON), 2011 13th international conference on, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  16. Li H (2011, Sept) Restful web service frameworks in Java. In: Signal processing, communications and computing (ICSPCC), 2011 IEEE international conference on, p 1–4Google Scholar
  17. Louvel J, Templier T, Boileau T (2012) Restlet in action: developing restful web apis in Java. Manning Publications Co, GreenwichGoogle Scholar
  18. Lupp M (2011) Open geospatial consortium. In: Shekhar S, Xiong H (eds) Encyclopedia of GIS. Springer, Berlin, p 815Google Scholar
  19. Lützenberger M, Masuch N, Küster T, Freund D, Voß M, Hrabia CE, Albayrak S (2015) A common approach to intelligent energy and mobility services in a smart city environment. J Ambient Intell Hum Comput 6(3):337–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Madden L (2011) Professional augmented reality browsers for smartphones: programming for junaio, layar and wikitude, 1st edn. Wiley, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  21. Metaio DOC doc description [Computer software manual] (2015). Accessed 2 Feb 2015
  22. Schall G, Mendez E, Kruijff E, Veas E, Junghanns S, Reitinger B, Schmalstieg D (2009) Handheld augmented reality for underground infrastructure visualization. Pers Ubiquit Comput 13(4):281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schall G, Schmalstieg D, Junghanns S (2002) The use of augmented reality, GPS and INS for subsurface data visualization. In: XXII international congress of the FIT. Washington, DC, USA, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  24. Shreiner D, Group TKOAW (2009) OpenGL programming guide: the official guide to learning OpenGL, versions 3.0 and 3.1, 7th ed. Addison-Wesley ProfessionalGoogle Scholar
  25. Sinnott RW (1984) Virtues of the haversine. Sky Telesc 68(2):158MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang M, Callaghan V, Bernhardt J, White K, Peña-Rios A (2017) Augmented reality in education and training: pedagogical approaches and illustrative case studies. J Ambient Intell Hum Comput pp 1–12Google Scholar
  27. Widenius M, Axmark D (2002) Mysql reference manual, 1st edn. O’Reilly & Associates Inc., SebastopolGoogle Scholar
  28. Wilde E, Pautasso C (2011) Rest: from research to practice, 1st edn. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wingfield N, Isaac M (2016) Pokémon go brings augmented reality to a mass audience. The New York Times. Accessed 2 Feb 2015

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Matematica, Informatica ed EconomiaUniversità della BasilicataPotenzaItaly

Personalised recommendations