Journal of Visualization

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 569–583 | Cite as

Three-dimensional particle behavior using defocusing method in micro-toroidal vortex generated by optoelectrokinetic flow

  • Dong Kim
  • Yining Ma
  • Kyung Chun KimEmail author
Regular Paper


This paper demonstrates a technique to realize multiphysics simulation and experimental validation of micro-toroidal vortex and utilizing the defocusing method to obtain the three-dimensional particles trajectory using a single camera. Fluorescent polystyrene particles were suspended at a concentration of 3.7 × 108 count mL−1 solution diluted with DI water. These were carried by the toroidal vortex fluid motion and showed an optoelectrokinetic phenomenon. We used a defocusing method to trace the three-dimensional trajectory of the particles. The size of the ring pattern increased as particles moved far away from the focusing plane and close to the objective lens. By recording the ring pattern size of one particle in every continuous frame, we successfully implemented the described techniques to obtain the three-dimensional trajectory of particles in an optoelectrokinetic experiment. Simulation results in COMSOL® Multiphysics (v4.3a) were compared to the trajectory and particle velocity variation in the experiment.

Graphical abstract


Optoelectrokinetic Multiphysics simulation Defocusing method Three-dimensional trajectory Micro-toroidal vortex 



This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korean Government (MSIT) through GCRC-SOP (No. 2011-0030013).


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Copyright information

© The Visualization Society of Japan 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringPusan National UniversityPusanRepublic of Korea

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