Journal of Visualization

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 97–110 | Cite as

Magnetic resonance imaging of flow and mass transfer in electrohydrodynamic liquid bridges

  • Adam D. WexlerEmail author
  • Sandra Drusová
  • Elmar C. Fuchs
  • Jakob Woisetschläger
  • Gert Reiter
  • Michael Fuchsjäger
  • Ursula Reiter
Regular Paper



Here, we report on the feasibility and use of magnetic resonance imaging-based methods to the study of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) liquid bridges. High-speed tomographic recordings through the longitudinal axis of water bridges were used to characterize the mass transfer dynamics, mixing, and flow structure. By filling one beaker with heavy water and the other with light water, it was possible to track the spread of the proton signal throughout the total liquid volume. The mixing kinetics are different depending on where the light nuclei are located and proceeds faster when the anolyte is light water. Distinct flow and mixing regions are identified in the fluid volumes, and it is shown that the EHD flow at the electrodes can be counteracted by the density difference between water isotopes. MR phase contrast imaging reveals that within the bridge section, two separate counter-propagating flows pass one above the other in the bridge.

Graphical Abstract


Floating water bridge Electrohydrodynamic flow Magnetic resonance imaging Water isotope mixing 



This work was performed in the cooperation framework of Wetsus, European Center of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology ( Wetsus is co-funded by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment, the Province of Fryslân, and the Northern Netherlands Provinces. ADW, SD, ECF, and JW wish to thank the participants of the research theme Applied Water Physics for the fruitful discussions and their financial support.

Supplementary material

12650_2016_379_MOESM1_ESM.mp4 (36.5 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (MP4 37349 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Visualization Society of Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Applied Water PhysicsWetsus European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water TechnologyLeeuwardenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Institute for Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics, Working Group Metrology-Laser Optical MetrologyTechnical University of GrazGrazAustria
  3. 3.Siemens AG HealthcareGrazAustria
  4. 4.Division of General Radiology, Department of RadiologyMedical University of GrazGrazAustria

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