Journal of Visualization

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 7–16 | Cite as

An experimental investigation of flow-induced acoustic resonance and flow field in a closed side branch system using a high time-resolved PIV technique

  • Yan Rong Li
  • Satoshi SomeyaEmail author
  • Koji Okamoto
Regular Paper


Systems with closed side branches are liable to an excitation of sound known as cavity tone. It may occur in pipe branches leading to safety valves or to boiler relief valves. The outbreak mechanism of the cavity tone has been ascertained by phase-averaged pressure measurements in previous research, while the relation between sound propagation and the flow field is still unclear due to the difficulty of detecting the instantaneous velocity field. It is possible to detect the two-dimensional instantaneous velocity field using high time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV). In this study, flow-induced acoustic resonance in a piping system containing closed side branches was investigated experimentally. A high time-resolved PIV technique was used to measure the gas flow in a cavity. Airflow containing oil mist as tracer particles was measured using a high-frequency pulse laser and a high-speed camera. The present investigation on the coaxial closed side branches is the first rudimentary study to visualize the fluid flow two-dimensionally in a cross-section using high time-resolved PIV, and to measure the pressure at the downstream side opening of the cavity by microphone. The fluid flows at different points in the cavity interact, with some phase differences between them, and the relation between the fluid flows was clarified.

Graphical abstract


Cavity tone Acoustic resonance Flow-induced vibration Coaxial closed side branches Visualization Particle image velocimetry 

List of symbols


The speed of sound when T = 23°C, C = 345.3 m/s (m/s)


The width of the branch (m)


The depth of the main pipe (m)


The difference between the measured frequency and the calculated one (%)


The frequency estimated from the empirical equation (Hz)


Dominant frequency of the pressure fluctuation by FFT (Hz)


Dominant frequency of the velocity fluctuation by FFT (Hz)


The length of the branch (m)


The acoustic mode order


Mach number


Total flow rate (l/min)


The fluctuation rate at the mouth of the cavity


Strouhal number (St MIC = (f MIC)d/V m)


Strouhal number (St PIV = (f MIC)d/V m)


The room temperature of the laboratory (°C)


Mean velocity in the main pipe (m/s)


The propagation velocity of the fluctuation along the shear layer at the mouth of the cavity (m/s)


Local mean velocity at the mouth of the cavity (m/s)


The vertical component of the relative velocity (m/s)


The vertical component of the detected velocity vector in specific point (m/s)

\( \bar{V}_{\text{y}} \)

The time-averaged value of the vertical component of the detected velocity vector (m/s)


The thickness of the main pipe and the branch (m)



The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the Japan Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry under the Innovative and Viable Nuclear Energy Technology (IVNET) Development Project.


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Copyright information

© The Visualization Society of Japan 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human and Engineered Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier SciencesUniversity of TokyoChibaJapan
  2. 2.National Institute of AISTIbarakiJapan

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