Fruits and vegetables are a rich source of natural antioxidants; therefore their discards can be viewed as a functional feed ingredient in animal nutrition. The aim of present study was to examine the effects of sodium metabisulfite (SMB) on microbial, nutritional, and antioxidant stability of fruit and vegetable discards (FVD) under laboratory- and large-scale conditions. Initially, FVD were mixed without or with 6 g SMB/kg biomass, aerobically challenged for 7 days, and then stored anaerobically up to 28 days. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, negligible loss of the nutrient constituents was evident in SMB-treated FVD. Conversely, the rapid rise in the microbial population of FVD (without SMB) resulted in biomass deterioration and substantial dry matter loss and sugar exhaustion. Although the prolonged storage of SMB-treated FVD resulted in the moderate loss of carotenoids, total phenolics and DPPH radical scavenging activity slightly changed. Overall, a series of laboratory- and large-scale experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of SMB in conserving the nutrient constituents and the antioxidant capacity of FVD under aerobic and anaerobic storage, which might enable a viable route to the effective utilization of these discards as a functional ingredient for animal feed applications.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Sagar, N.A., Pareek, S., Sharma, S., Yahia, E.M., Lobo, M.G.: Fruit and vegetable waste: bioactive compounds, their extraction, and possible utilization. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 17, 512–531 (2018)
Angulo, J., Mahecha, L., Yepes, S.A., Yepes, A.M., Bustamante, G., Jaramillo, H., Valencia, E., Villamil, T., Gallo, J.: Nutritional evaluation of fruit and vegetable waste as feedstuff for diets of lactating Holstein cows. J. Environ Manage. 95, 210–214 (2012)
Romero-Huelva, M., Ramos-Morales, E., Molina-Alcaide, E.: Nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial abundances, and milk yield and composition in dairy goats fed diets including tomato and cucumber waste fruits. J. Dairy Sci. 95, 6015–6026 (2012)
Karam, M.C., Petit, J., Zimmer, D., Djantou, E.B., Scher, J.: Effects of drying and grinding in production of fruit and vegetable powders: A review. J. Food Eng. 188, 32–49 (2016)
Ahmadi, F., Lee, Y.H., Lee, W.H., Oh, Y.K., Park, K., Kwak, W.S.: Preservation of fruit and vegetable discards with sodium metabisulfite. J. Environ. Manage. 224, 113–121 (2018)
Arvanitoyannis, I.S., 2008. Waste management for the food industries. Academic Press – Elsevier Ltd., Oxford, UK.
Mirabella, N., Castellani, V., Sala, S.: Current options for the valorization of food manufacturing waste: a review. J. Clean. Prod. 65, 28–41 (2014)
Ahmadi, F., Lee, Y.H., Lee, W.H., Oh, Y.K., Park, K., Kwak, W.S.: Long-term anaerobic conservation of fruit and vegetable discards without or with moisture adjustment after aerobic preservation with sodium metabisulfite. Waste Manage. 87, 258–267 (2019)
Weinberg, Z.G., Muck, R.: New trends and opportunities in the development and use of inoculants for silage. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 19, 53–68 (1996)
Bacenetti, J., Fusi, A.: The environmental burdens of maize silage production: influence of different ensiling techniques. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 204, 88–98 (2015)
Eliyahu, D., Shaani, Y., Yosef, E., Ben-Meir, Y., Nikbachat, M., Solomon, R., Mabjeesh, S.J., Weinberg, Z.G., Miron, J.: Effect of ensiling pomegranate pulp with solid additives on chemical composition, intake and digestibility by sheep. Small Rumin. Res. 131, 93–98 (2015)
Hafner, S.D., Howard, C., Muck, R.E., Franco, R.B., Montes, F., Green, P.G., Mitloehner, F., Trabue, S.L., Rotz, C.A.: Emission of volatile organic compounds from silage: Compounds, sources, and implications. Atmos. Environ. 77, 827–839 (2013)
Robinson, P.H., Swanepoel, N., Heguy, J.M., Price, T., Meyer, D.M.: ‘Shrink’ losses in commercially sized corn silage piles: quantifying total losses and where they occur. Sci. Total Environ. 542, 530–539 (2016)
Borreani, G., Tabacco, E., Schmidt, R., Holmes, B., Muck, R.: Silage review: Factors affecting dry matter and quality losses in silages. J. Dairy Sci. 101, 3952–3979 (2018)
Mahmoud, A.A.T., Hassan, G.M., Hassan, A.M.S., Latif, A.K.M.A., Ramadan, M.F.: Demonstrating adverse effects of a common food additive (sodium sulfite) on biochemical, cytological and histopathological parameters in tissues of albino Wister rats. Eur. J. Integr. Med. 7, 234–242 (2015)
Bratzler, J., Cowan, R., Swift, R.: Grass silage preservation with sodium metabisulfite. J. Anim. Sci. 15, 163–176 (1956)
Cowan, R.L., Bratzler, J.W., Keck Jr, E., Swift, R.W., Alderman, G., Washko, J.B., 1956. Further experiments with sodium bisulfite as a preservative for grass silage. J. Anim. Sci. 15, 1188–1198 (1956).
Truong, H.H., Neilson, K.A., McInerney, B.V., Khoddami, A., Roberts, T.H., Liu, S.Y., Selle, P.H.: Sodium metabisulphite enhances energy utilisation in broiler chickens offered sorghum-based diets with five different grain varieties. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 219, 159–174 (2016)
Dubois, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rebers, P., Smith, F.: Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal. Chem. 28, 350–356 (1956)
Chaney, A.L., Marbach, E.P.: Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clin. Chem. 8, 130–132 (1962)
Porter, M., Murray, R.: The volatility of components of grass silage on oven drying and the inter-relationship between dry-matter content estimated by different analytical methods. Grass and Forage Sci. 56, 405–411 (2001)
Weißbach, F., Strubelt, C.: Correcting the dry matter content of maize silages as a substrate for biogas production. Landtechnik 63, 82–83 (2008)
Barker, S.B., Summerson, W.H.: The colorimetric determination of lactic acid in biological material. J. Biol. Chem. 138, 535–554 (1941)
Chandrasekara, A., Shahidi, F.: Content of insoluble bound phenolics in millets and their contribution to antioxidant capacity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58, 6706–6714 (2010)
Singleton, V.L., Rossi, J.A.: Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Viticult. 16, 144–158 (1965)
Silva, K.D.R.R., Sirasa, M.S.F.: Antioxidant properties of selected fruit cultivars grown in Sri Lanka. Food Chem. 238, 203–208 (2018)
de Carvalho, L.M.J., Gomes, P.B., de Oliveira Godoy, R.L., Pacheco, S., do Monte, P.H.F., de Carvalho, J.L.V., Nutti, M.R., Neves, A.C.L., Vieira, A.C.R.A., Ramos, S.R.R., : Total carotenoid content, α-carotene and β-carotene, of landrace pumpkins (Cucurbita moschata Duch): A preliminary study. Food Res. Int. 47, 337–340 (2012)
Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M., Berset, C.: Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 28, 25–30 (1995)
Leong, L., Shui, G.: An investigation of antioxidant capacity of fruits in Singapore markets. Food Chem. 76, 69–75 (2002)
Kim, D.O., Jeong, S.W., Lee, C.Y.: Antioxidant capacity of phenolic phytochemicals from various cultivars of plums. Food Chem. 81, 321–326 (2003)
Institute., S. SAS User’s Guide. Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. 2003.
McDonald, P., Henderson, N., Heron, S.: The biochemistry of silage. Cambrian Printers Ltd., Aberystwyth, UK (1991)
Spoelstra, S.F., Courtin, M.G., Vanbeers, J.A.C.: Acetic-acid bacteria can initiate aerobic deterioration of whole crop maize silage. J. Agric. Sci. 111, 127–132 (1988)
Brüning, D., Gerlach, K., Weiß, K., Südekum, K.H.: Effect of compaction, delayed sealing and aerobic exposure on maize silage quality and on formation of volatile organic compounds. Grass and Forage Sci. 73, 53–66 (2018)
Ashbell, G., Pahlow, G., Dinter, B., Weinberg, Z.: Dynamics of orange peel fermentation during ensilage. J. Appl. Microbiol. 63, 275–279 (1987)
Driehuis, F., Elferink, S., Spoelstra, S.: Anaerobic lactic acid degradation during ensilage of whole crop maize inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri inhibits yeast growth and improves aerobic stability. J. Appl. Microbiol. 87, 583–594 (1999)
Divol, B., du Toit, M., Duckitt, E.: Surviving in the presence of sulphur dioxide: strategies developed by wine yeasts. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 95, 601–613 (2012)
Alderman, G., Cowan, R., Bratzler, J., Swift, R.: Some chemical characteristics of grass and legume silage made with sodium metabisulfite. J. Dairy Sci. 38, 805–810 (1955)
Bolin, H.R., Jackson, R.: Factors affecting sulfur dioxide binding in dried apples and apricots. J. Food Process. Pres. 9, 25–34 (1985)
Ough, C.S., Were, L., 2005. Sulfur dioxide and sulfites. In Davidson, P.M., Sofos, J.N., Branen, A., (eds), Antimicrobials in Foods, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Everette, J.D., Bryant, Q.M., Green, A.M., Abbey, Y.A., Wangila, G.W., Walker, R.B.: A thorough study of reactivity of various compound classes towards the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58, 8139–8144 (2010)
Cisneros-Zevallos, L.: The use of controlled postharvest abiotic stresses as a tool for enhancing the nutraceutical content and adding-value of fresh fruits and vegetables. J. Food Sci. 68, 1560–1565 (2003)
Kays, S.J.: Stress in harvested products. In: Kays, S.J. (ed.) Postharvest physiology of perishable plant products, pp. 335–407. Exon Press, Athens, GA (1997)
Reyes, L.F., Villarreal, J.E., Cisneros-Zevallos, L.: The increase in antioxidant capacity after wounding depends on the type of fruit or vegetable tissue. Food Chem. 101, 1254–1262 (2007)
Reyes, L.F., Cisneros-Zevallos, L.: Wounding stress increases the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of purple-flesh potatoes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 5296–5300 (2003)
Sánchez-Moreno, C., Larrauri, J.A., Saura-Calixto, F.: Free radical scavenging capacity of selected red, rose and white wines. J. Sci. Food Agric. 79, 1301–1304 (1999)
Wijngaard, H.H., Rößle, C., Brunton, N.: A survey of Irish fruit and vegetable waste and by-products as a source of polyphenolic antioxidants. Food Chem. 116, 202–207 (2009)
Chen, J.P., Tai, C.Y., Chen, B.H.: Effects of different drying treatments on the stability of carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.). Food Chem. 100, 1005–1010 (2007)
Aydin, E., Gocmen, D.: The influences of drying method and metabisulfite pre-treatment on the color, functional properties and phenolic acids contents and bioaccessibility of pumpkin flour. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 60, 385–392 (2015)
Dennison, D.B., Kirk, J.R.: Effect of trace metal fortification on the storage stability of ascorbic acid in a dehydrated model food system. J. Food Sci. 47, 1198–1200 (1982)
Kleinschmit, D., Schmidt, R., Kung, L.: The effects of various antifungal additives on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage. J. Dairy Sci. 88, 2130–2139 (2005)
Ramesh, M.N., Wolf, W., Tevini, D., Jung, G.: Influence of processing parameters on the drying of spice paprika. J. Food Eng. 49, 63–72 (2001)
Smith, W.C., Campbell, I.L.: Sodium metabisulphite as an additive in silage making. New Zeal. J. Agr. Res. 3, 1027–1037 (1960)
Meiske, J.C., Prouty, R.M., Schuman, L.M., Scaletti, J.V.: Effect of sodium bisulfite additions to corn silages. J. Anim. Sci. 24, 705–710 (1965)
Zhao, Y.P., Chang, K.C.: Sulfite and starch affect color and carotenoids of dehydrated carrots (Daucus carota) during storage. J. Food Sci. 60, 324–326 (1995)
Gardner, P.T., White, T.A., McPhail, D.B., Duthie, G.G.: The relative contributions of vitamin C, carotenoids and phenolics to the antioxidant potential of fruit juices. Food Chem. 68, 471–474 (2000)
Vibhakara, H.S.J., Gupta, D.K.D., Jayaraman, K.S., Mohan, M.S.: Development of a high-moisture shelf-stable grated carrot product using hurdle technology. J. Food Process. Preserv. 30, 134–144 (2006)
Hymavathi, T.V., Khader, V.: Carotene, ascorbic acid and sugar content of vacuum dehydrated ripe mango powders stored in flexible packaging material. J. Food Compos. Anal. 18, 181–192 (2005)
Mir, M.A., Nath, N.: Storage changes in fortified mango bars. J. Food Sci. Technol. 30, 279–287 (1993)
Kalač, P.: The effects of silage feeding on some sensory and health attributes of cow’s milk: A review. Food Chem. 125, 307–317 (2011)
Rodriguez-Amaya, D.: Changes in carotenoids during processing and storage of foods. Arch. Latinoam. Nutr. 49, 38–47 (1999)
Baloch, W.A., Khan, S., Baloch, A.K.: Influence of chemical additives on the stability of dried tomato powder. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 32, 117–120 (1997)
Nadeem, M., Ubaid, N., Qureshi, T.M., Munir, M., Mehmood, A.: Effect of ultrasound and chemical treatment on total phenol, flavonoids and antioxidant properties on carrot-grape juice blend during storage. Ultrason. Sonochem. 45, 1–6 (2018)
This study was performed with the financial support of the “Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No. PJ012507032019)” Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea. This study was also supported by Konkuk University.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Ahmadi, F., Lee, W.H., Oh, Y. et al. Microbial, Nutritional, and Antioxidant Stability of Fruit and Vegetables Discards Treated with Sodium Metabisulfite During Aerobic and Anaerobic Storage. Waste Biomass Valor (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-020-00968-9
- Antioxidant capacity
- Fruit and vegetable waste
- Nutrient composition