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Technoeconomic Evaluation of a Gasification Plant: Modeling, Experiment and Software Development

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Abstract

Thermodynamic and economic feasibility of substituting producer gas for natural gas in a distributed generation platform, located in a car manufacturing factory, is performed. The distributed generation platform is capable of producing both power and heat demand of the factory with the use of biomass gasification. A comprehensive software program is developed in C# programming language, to simulate biomass gasification in an efficient and user-friendly manner. Considered gasification model is realistic with considering representative tar composition in the producer gas. The result of gasification simulation is verified through an experimental setup. The experimental setup is utilized to calibrate the simulation results with the use of appropriate modeling coefficients to get a closer agreement between the simulation and the experimental testing. It is concluded that multiplying equilibrium constants (K1 and K2) by 0.7 yields the best agreement between the simulation results and experimental values. It is also concluded that the gross total efficiency is 11.8% higher and the net total efficiency is 10.7% higher in the producer gas-fueled configuration than the natural gas-fueled configuration. The reasons for higher efficiencies in the producer gas-fueled configuration are mainly the type of the fuel used and the heat integration of the system. The sensitivity analysis shows that increasing the biomass moisture content will decrease CO relative composition and will increase H2 and CH4 relative compositions in the producer gas. Also, biomass fuels with greater levels of moisture content not only increase the required inlet feed to the system but also increase the level of CO2 emission to the atmosphere. Approximately 4,468,300 m3 of natural gas per year can be saved using the proposed system and the period of return of the project is 6.1 years.

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Abbreviations

ACS:

Annualized cost of system

CGE:

Cold gas efficiency

CRF:

Capital recovery factor

FOM:

Fixed operating and maintenance cost ($/kW-year)

GA:

Genetic algorithm

GHG:

Green house gases

HHE:

High heating value

HRSG:

Heat recovery steam generator

LCOP:

Levelized cost of product

LHV:

Lower heating value

LP:

Low pressure

NAB:

Net annual benefit

OFC:

Operating flow cost

POR:

Period of return

PSP:

Power sale price (cent/kWh)

RMS:

Root mean square

SI:

Spark ignition

SOPC:

Summation of product cost

HSP:

Heat sale price (cent/kWh)

NPV:

Net present value

AHRSG :

Heat recovery steam generator area (m2)

Ahx :

Heat exchanger area (m2)

avai:

Availability

b:

Nominal interest rate (%)

CAP:

Total capital cost (M$)

CB :

Equipment cost with capacity QB (base capacity)

CE :

Equipment cost with capacity Q

Cp :

Specific heat capacity at constant pressure (kJ/kg)

E:

Energy (kJ)

FA:

Filter area (m2)

\(G^{0}_{T,i}\) :

Gibbs free energy (kJ/kmol)

H:

Enthalpy (kJ)

h:

Specific enthalpy (kJ/kg)

HP:

High pressure

HR:

Heat rate (MJ/kWh)

\(\overline{h}\) :

Molar enthalpy (kJ/kmol)

\(h^{0}_{f}\) :

Enthalpy of formation (kJ/kmol)

i:

The mole of sulfide dioxide (per mole of biomass)

i:

Interest rate

j:

The mole of carbon monoxide (per mole of biomass)

K:

The ratio of the specific heat capacity at constant; pressure to the specific heat capacity at constant volume

K:

Equilibrium constant

\(\dot{m}\) :

Mass flow rate (kg/s)

Ma :

Air molecular weight (kg/kmol)

Mf :

Fuel molecular weight (kg/kmol)

Q:

Mass flow rate (kg/s)

Qin :

Heat input to the gasifying process (preheating)

Qout :

Heat output of the gasifying process (heat loss)

\(\dot{Q}\) :

The time rate of heat (kJ/s)

react:

Reaction reactants

Ru :

Universal constant of ideal gases

s:

The mole of carbon dioxide (per mole of biomass)

T:

Temperature (°C)

t:

The mole of hydrogen (per mole of biomass)

u:

The mole of methane (per mole of biomass)

v:

The mole of water (per mole of biomass)

w:

Water molar fraction in biomass

\(\dot{W}\) :

The time rate of work or power (kJ/s)

X:

Salt concentration

x:

Ambient air molar composition

y:

The mole of nitrogen (per mole of biomass)

z:

The mole of oxygen (per mole of biomass)

a:

Air

av:

Average

base:

Base case

cw:

Cooling water

d:

Distillate

db:

Dry base

f:

Feed

f:

Fuel

m:

H atoms substitution formula

p:

Product

p:

O atoms substitution formula

pg:

Producer gas

pu:

Pump

q:

N atoms substitution formula

r:

S atoms substitution formula

ηsp :

Pump isentropic efficiency (%)

ηmp :

Pump mechanical efficiency (%)

ηep :

Motor efficiency (%)

ΔT:

The temperature drop per stage (°C)

ΔP:

Differential pressure (kPa)

\(\lambda\) :

Latent heat (kJ/kg)

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Rahimi, M.J., Hamedi, M.H., Amidpour, M. et al. Technoeconomic Evaluation of a Gasification Plant: Modeling, Experiment and Software Development. Waste Biomass Valor (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-019-00925-1

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Keywords

  • Biomass gasification
  • Thermodynamic
  • Economic
  • Simulation
  • C# programming