Bio-nanocomposite Films Reinforced with Various Types of Cellulose Nanocrystals Isolated from Oil Palm Biomass Waste

  • Junidah Lamaming
  • Rokiah HashimEmail author
  • Cheu Peng Leh
  • Othman Sulaiman
  • Sofie Zarina Lamaming
Original Paper


Studies of bio-nanocomposites using sustainable green materials from biomass waste are presently gain the attention worldwide. This study investigated the properties of bio-nanocomposite films from polyvinyl alcohol incorporated with 1%, 3%, and 5% via solvent casting method using various types of oil palm trunk cellulose nanocrystals isolated using various types of treatment. The produced bio-nanocomposite films were characterized for their mechanical behavior, morphological properties, thermal properties, and functionality groups and the effect of adding the oil palm trunk cellulose nanocrystals into the bio-nanocomposites films were then evaluated. The results showed that the mechanical properties and thermal stabilities of the bio-nanocomposite films increased with the incorporation of cellulose nanocrystals. The bio-nanocomposite films added with 3% cellulose nanocrystals with pre-hydrolysis treatment showed better mechanical and thermal properties and hence have a great potential to be utilized as a raw material or reinforcement in the packaging industries.

Graphic Abstract


Bio-nanocomposite films Cellulose nanocrystals Oil palm trunk waste Reinforcement Mechanical properties 



The authors acknowledge and gratefully thanked Universiti Sains Malaysia for the project funding under a research grant (1001/PTEKIND/811255) and the postdoctoral fellowship to Dr. Junidah Lamaming.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors confirmed that there are no conflicts of interest associated with this publication.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junidah Lamaming
    • 1
  • Rokiah Hashim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cheu Peng Leh
    • 1
  • Othman Sulaiman
    • 1
  • Sofie Zarina Lamaming
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Bioresource, Paper and Coatings Technology, School of Industrial TechnologyUniversiti Sains MalaysiaMindenMalaysia

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