Bio-nanocomposite Films Reinforced with Various Types of Cellulose Nanocrystals Isolated from Oil Palm Biomass Waste
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Studies of bio-nanocomposites using sustainable green materials from biomass waste are presently gain the attention worldwide. This study investigated the properties of bio-nanocomposite films from polyvinyl alcohol incorporated with 1%, 3%, and 5% via solvent casting method using various types of oil palm trunk cellulose nanocrystals isolated using various types of treatment. The produced bio-nanocomposite films were characterized for their mechanical behavior, morphological properties, thermal properties, and functionality groups and the effect of adding the oil palm trunk cellulose nanocrystals into the bio-nanocomposites films were then evaluated. The results showed that the mechanical properties and thermal stabilities of the bio-nanocomposite films increased with the incorporation of cellulose nanocrystals. The bio-nanocomposite films added with 3% cellulose nanocrystals with pre-hydrolysis treatment showed better mechanical and thermal properties and hence have a great potential to be utilized as a raw material or reinforcement in the packaging industries.
KeywordsBio-nanocomposite films Cellulose nanocrystals Oil palm trunk waste Reinforcement Mechanical properties
The authors acknowledge and gratefully thanked Universiti Sains Malaysia for the project funding under a research grant (1001/PTEKIND/811255) and the postdoctoral fellowship to Dr. Junidah Lamaming.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors confirmed that there are no conflicts of interest associated with this publication.
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