Ultrasonic Assisted Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil to Biodiesel Using Nano Magnetic Catalysts
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In the present work, the effect of nano magnetic catalysts on biodiesel production from rapeseed oil was investigated. The produced catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and BET surface area analyzer and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Ultrasonic irradiation utilized just for 35 min at different molar ratio of Li/Fe3O4 and Li/ZnO–Fe3O4. The highest yield 99.8% obtained while the molar ratio of catalyst was Li/Fe3O4 = 3/1 and Li/ZnO–Fe3O4 = 3/1. The vibrating sample magnetometer demonstrated that the catalysts could easily be separated due to ferromagnetic property, even if the catalyst was regenerated and used again for esterification. The superparamagnetic behavior of particles exhibited the high yield of recovery of catalyst after three time regeneration and applying in reaction. Moreover, the results revealed that using mentioned basic nano magnetic catalyst and ultrasonic waves at 37 kHz frequency could decrease the reaction temperature and reaction time and increase biodiesel production yield comparing with conventional mechanical stirring method. The specifications of produced fatty acid methyl esters like viscosity and flash point were complied with the mentioned requirements in ASTM D6751.
KeywordsBiodiesel Ultrasonic irradiation Nano-magnetic catalyst
The authors gratefully acknowledge research enter of Iranian standard institute for the support of this work.
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