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Exploring Bioactive Compounds in Anaerobically Digested Slurry: Extraction, Characterization, and Assessment of Antifungal Activity

  • Jiaxin Lu
  • Atif Muhmood
  • Hongtao Liu
  • Renjie Dong
  • Sen Pang
  • Shubiao WuEmail author
Original Paper
  • 38 Downloads

Abstract

Anaerobically digested slurry is well known for its use as a bio-fertilizer because of its high macro-nutrient content (e.g. N, P, K), which is essential for plant growth. The suppressive effect of slurry land application on pathogenic fungal growth due to the presence of bioactive and antimicrobial substances generated during anaerobic digestion has recently been reported. However, knowledge about the identification, characterization, and subsequent antimicrobial activity evaluation of various bioactive compounds in the anaerobically digested slurry is still insufficient. Ultrasound-assisted extraction using three solvents, ethyl acetate (EA), dichloromethane (DM), and n-butanol (NB), was employed for extraction of bioactive compounds. After extraction and characterization, antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum was assessed. EA was found to be a more efficient extractant with less evaporating time (4 min), irrespective of temperature. DM was found to be efficient in the extraction of O-heterocycles, while N-heterocycles were enriched in EA extracts. Furthermore, the bioactive compounds, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, butyl 2-methylpropyl ester (54.9%), and 9-octadecenamide, (Z)-(2.51%) were detected in the EA extract, while tetrahydro-2-furanmethanamine (1.32%), cyclic octatomic sulfur (1.17%), squalene (4.06%), and cholestan-3-ol (9.06%) were detected in the DM extract. The EA extract achieved approximately 84% inhibition of F. oxysporum, while only 63% inhibition was observed with the DM extract. Collectively, these findings indicate that in addition to its role as a fertilizer, digested slurry may also contribute to the control of phytopathogens upon land application because of the presence of various bioactive compounds. However, further work is needed to explore the diversity of bioactive compounds in digested manures and evaluate their antimicrobial potential.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Bioactive compounds Heterocycles Phytopathogens Ultrasound Extraction 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financed by grants from the project of “Research Fund for International Young Scientist (51650110489)”.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest whether financial or relational during the preparation and submission of this work.

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© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Engineering, Key Laboratory for Clean Renewable Energy Utilization Technology, China Agricultural UniversityMinistry of AgricultureBeijingChina
  2. 2.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.College of SciencesChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina
  4. 4.Aarhus Institute of Advanced StudiesAarhus UniversityAarhus CDenmark

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