Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 11, pp 3485–3491 | Cite as

Mechanical Activation on Phosphogypsum: Hydrosodalite System

  • Dalia NizevičienėEmail author
  • Danutė Vaičiukynienė
  • Andrius Kielė
  • Vilimantas Vaičiukynas
Original Paper


The application of phosphogypsum in the production of binding materials is problematic because of phosphate, fluorine and other soluble impurities. These impurities influence the strength development of binding materials and during operating time can be released (efflorescence) from binding materials’ products. For these reasons, it is important to neutralize the above-mentioned impurities. The objective of the work was to investigate the neutralization process of the acid impurities of hemihydrate phosphogypsum (obtained from Kovdor apatite mine) with zeolite hydrosodalite. Mechanical activation together with the neutralizing zeolite additive was used in this research. Mechanical activation was carried out in a ball mill. Two types of samples were formed: one type with non-milled mixtures and the second type with milled mixtures. The additive of 0, 3, 5, and 10% of hydrosodalite was chosen. This paper describes the process of adsorbing of hazardous phosphate impurities by hydrosodalite. The compressive strength of phosphogypsum specimens with hydrosodalite additives subjected to mechanical treatment was higher as compared to the specimens without mechanical activation and additive of hydrosodalite. In this case pH values of milled mixture with hydrosodalite become neutral for these samples. It was determined that the mixture of phosphogypsum with hydrosodalite under mechanical treatment is an effective additive for neutralizing the acidic phosphogypsum medium.


Phosphogypsum Zeolite Hydrosodalite Mechanical activation 


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Electrical and Electronics EngineeringKaunas University of TechnologyKaunasLithuania
  2. 2.Faculty of Civil Engineering and ArchitectureKaunas University of TechnologyKaunasLithuania
  3. 3.Faculty of Water and Land ManagementAleksandras Stulginskis UniversityAkademijaLithuania

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