Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 11, pp 3331–3342 | Cite as

Utilization of Fermented Pistia Leaves in the Diet of Rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton): Effects on Growth, Digestibility and Whole Body Composition

  • Sudipta Mandal
  • Koushik GhoshEmail author
Original Paper


The present study aimed at re-cycling of an aquatic weed (water lettuce, Pistia sp.) as a component in formulation of low cost non-conventional carp diet. Dried Pistia leaves (PL) was bio-processed through solid state fermentation (SSF) for 15 days at  32 ± 1 °C by a tannase producing yeast, Pichia kudriavzevii (GU939629) isolated from the gut of a freshwater carp, Cirrhinus cirrhosus. SSF of PL was effective in reducing the contents of crude fibre and antinutritional factors (e.g., tannin, phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor) significantly (P < 0.05), whereas enhancing crude protein, lipid, ash, total free amino acids and fatty acids. Six isonitrogenous (35%) and isocaloric (17 kJ g−1) experimental diets were prepared incorporating raw (R1–R3) and fermented (F1–F3) PL at 10, 20 and 30% levels by weight replacing fishmeal (FM) and other feed ingredients into a FM-based reference diet and fed to rohu, Labeo rohita fingerlings (initial weight 3.39 ± 0.06 g) for 80 days. In general, fish fed diets with SSF-processed PL resulted in significantly better growth, nutrient digestibility, carcass composition and digestive enzyme activity compared to the diets with raw PL. Fish fed the diet F2 containing 20% fermented PL had the highest live weight gain (106.3%), specific growth rate (SGR, % day−1), protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization. The highest protein gain (40.84%) and lipid accumulation in the carcass were also recorded in the fish reared on the diet F2. The present study might suggest incorporation of bio-processed PL up to 20% level (12.5% of FM replacement) without interfering growth, feed utilization efficiency and body composition in L. rohita fingerlings.


Pistia leaves Yeast Solid state fermentation Carp feed Growth Labeo rohita 



The authors are grateful to the Head, Department of Zoology (DST-FIST and UGC-SAP-DRS sponsored), The University of Burdwan, West Bengal, India; The Department of Science and Technology (PURSE programme) and Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB Research Project No. SR/FT/LS-193/2009), New Delhi, India for providing research facilities. The first author is grateful to The University of Burdwan for awarding the university fellowship.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Aquaculture Laboratory, Department of ZoologyThe University of BurdwanBurdwanIndia
  2. 2.Post Graduate Department of ZoologyBangabasi CollegeKolkataIndia

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