Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 8, pp 2319–2333 | Cite as

A Complete Analytical Characterization of Products Obtained from Pyrolysis of Wood Barks of Calophyllum inophyllum

  • R. SakthivelEmail author
  • K. Ramesh
  • P. Mohamed Shameer
  • R. Purnachandran
Original Paper


This research article aims to analyze the properties and characteristics of the products obtained from slow pyrolysis of wood barks of matured Calophyllum inophyllum (CI) tree. The bio-oil, gas and biochar obtained from the slow pyrolysis carried out at 550 °C in a fixed bed batch type reactor at a heating rate of 30 °C min−1 were characterized by different analytical techniques. Owing to the lofty volatile content of CI biomass (72.61%), it was chosen as the raw material in this current experimental investigation. FT-IR and GC–MS results of bio-oil showed the existence of elevated amount phenol derivatives, oxygenated compounds, acids, esters and furans. The physicochemical properties of the bio-oil sample were tested in accordance with ASTM standards which clearly showed that bio-oil is a highly viscous liquid with lower heating value as compared to that of diesel fuel. The chemical composition of pyrolytic gas was analyzed by using Gas Chromatography which revealed the presence of combustible organic components. The FT-IR results of biochar showed the presence of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons whereas the increased amount of carbon in biochar reveals its potential to be used as solid fuel for commercial purposes.


Calophyllum inophyllum Pyrolysis Wood bark FT-IR GC–MS 



Calophyllum inophyllum


American Society for Testing Materials


Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy


Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry


Energy dispersive X-ray analysis


Carbon monoxide


Carbon dioxide


Oxides of nitrogen







The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. T. Meenambal, Former Principal Advisor, TEQIP II - Centre of Excellence for Environmental Studies (COE-Es), Government College of Technology Coimbatore - 641013, Tamil Nadu State, India, for support to conduct the series of experiments and management of Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India for their support to conduct Gas Chromatography experiments.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Research ScholarGovernment College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.ThanjavurIndia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringGovernment College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringV.V. College of EngineeringTirunelveliIndia

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