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Biodiesel Potentiality of Microalgae Species: evaluation Using Various Nitrogen Sources

  • M. Vadivel
  • Sundaram Arvindnarayan
  • Gopalakrishnan KumarEmail author
  • Sutha Shobana
  • Jeyaprakash Dharmaraja
  • Dinh Duc Nguyen
  • Soon Woong Chang
  • Kandasamy K. Sivagnana PrabhuEmail author
Original Paper
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

Abstract

The two fresh water microalgae species namely Scenedesmus dimorphus and Scenedesmus obliquus were selected as biomass feedstocks for biodiesel production due to high accumulation of their neutral lipid content which mainly composed of three significant biodiesel fatty acids profile viz saturated fatty acids (SFA: ≈ 53%), mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA: ≈ 24%) and poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA: ≈ 20%). Both algae strains were cultivated with five different nitrogen nutrients via (NH4)2SO4 (ammonium sulphate: AS), NH4NO3 (ammonium nitrate: AN), KNO3 (potassium nitrate: PN), (NH2)2CO (urea: UR) and NaNO3 (sodium nitrate: SN) of concentration ranging from 0.02 to 0.3 M in agricultural medium. The transesterification of micro algal lipids with absolute ethanol medium in the presence of Ni/H2 catalyst and Ni(II)–Schiff base chelate promoter was carried out to yield more algal oil. The extracted biodiesel components were analyzed cost–effectively using UV–Vis,1H NMR, 13C NMR and GC–MS spectral characterization to explore their biodiesel potentiality. The results revealed that the extracted microalgae biodiesels are quite suitable for biodiesel production with higher oxidation stability and cetane number.

Graphical Abstract

In this study, S. dimorphus and S. obliquus in the presence of five different nitrogen nutrients of concentration ranging from 0.02 to 0.3 M agar in cultural medium were observed to stimulate them to produce lipid for biodiesel generation. The transesterification of micro algal lipids with absolute ethanol medium in the presence of Ni/H2 catalyst and Ni(II)–Schiff base chelate promoter was carried out to yield more algal oil. The fatty acid composition of the extracted micro algal oils have been identified via UV–Vis, NMR and GC–MS spectral characterization techniques to investigate their biodiesel potentiality. It is noted that increased UR concentration (up to 0.3 M) can effectively enhances biomass production of S. dimorphus and S. obliquus as increased urea levels may enhances biomass production excluding cells may have a low lipid content, at times.

Keywords

Scenedesmus sp. Ni(II)–Schiff base chelate Nitrogen sources NMR GC–MS techniques 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge R.M.K. Engineering College, Kavaraipettai for supporting for the Research facilities and STIC, CUSAT, Cochin for giving the analytical facilities.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Vadivel
    • 1
  • Sundaram Arvindnarayan
    • 2
  • Gopalakrishnan Kumar
    • 3
    Email author
  • Sutha Shobana
    • 4
  • Jeyaprakash Dharmaraja
    • 5
  • Dinh Duc Nguyen
    • 6
  • Soon Woong Chang
    • 6
  • Kandasamy K. Sivagnana Prabhu
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryMohamed Sathak Engineering CollegeRamnadIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringR.M.K. Engineering CollegeKavaraipettaiIndia
  3. 3.Green Processing, Bioremediation and Alternative Energies Research Group, Faculty of Environment and Labour SafetyTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  4. 4.Department of Chemistry and Research CentreAditanar College of Arts and ScienceTiruchendurIndia
  5. 5.Division of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and HumanitiesSree Sowdambika College of EngineeringAruppukottaiIndia
  6. 6.Department of Environmental Energy EngineeringKyonggi UniversitySuwonRepublic of Korea

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