Feasibility of Bioleaching of Selected Metals from Electronic Waste by Acidiphilium acidophilum
- 221 Downloads
The plausibility of bioleaching of selected metals, viz. Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni, from e-waste in the form of waste printed circuit board (PCB) from a television set was evaluated using a pure culture of Acidiphilium acidophilum, a strain of acidophilic alphaproteobacteria. Results from the study indicated that A. acidophilum was able to grow in the presence of e-waste and efficiently solubilize abundant metals like Cu as well as trace metals like Zn and Ni present in PCB. At a pulp density of 1 g/L with a particle size of <600 μm, maximum metal bioleaching efficiency of around 79% for Cu, 39% for Ni, 29% for Zn and 10% for Pb was observed at 60 days of leaching time. For Cu, bioleaching efficiency achieved at 45 days was around 78% which asymptotically increased to around 79% at 60 days. Similar asymptotic bioleaching trend was also observed for Ni, Zn and Pb. These findings highlight the practical feasibility of utilizing A. acidophilum for the successful development of bioleaching process for metal recovery from e-waste. However, the yield as well as leaching time can be improvised by optimizing various biotic and abiotic factors controlling the process.
KeywordsElectronic waste Printed circuit board Metal Bioleaching Acidiphilium acidophilum
The authors would like to acknowledge the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, for the fellowship grant (IF130860) for this research work.
- 1.United Nations University (UNU): E-waste World Map: Update to Quantitative Data and Legal Texts—STEP. http://step-initiative.org/index.php/newsdetails/items/e-waste-world-map/ (2012)
- 4.Li, J., Shrivastava, P., Gao, Z., Zhang, H.C.: Printed circuit board recycling: a state-of-the-art survey. IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf. 27, 122–147 (2004)Google Scholar
- 8.Hageluken, C.: Recycling of electronic scrap at Umicore’s integrated metals smelter and refinery. World Metall. 59, 152–161 (2006)Google Scholar
- 12.Atlas, R.M., Bartha, R.: Microbial Ecology: Fundamentals and Applications. Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco (1997)Google Scholar
- 22.Hiraishi, A., Nagashima, K.V., Matsuura, K., Shimada, K., Takaichi, S., Wakao, N., Katayama, Y.: Phylogeny and photosynthetic features of Thiobacillus acidophilus and related acidophilic bacteria: Its transfer to the genus Acidiphilium as Acidiphilium acidophilum comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 48, 1389–1398 (1998)Google Scholar
- 23.Küsel, K., Dorsch, T., Acker, G., Stackebrandt, E.: Microbial reduction of Fe(III) in acidic sediments: isolation of Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5 capable of coupling the reduction of Fe(III) to the oxidation of glucose. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 3633–3640 (1999)Google Scholar
- 24.Harrison, A.P.: Genomic and physiological comparisons between heterotrophic Thiobacilli and Acidiphilium cryptum, Thiobacillus versutus sp. nov., and Thiobacillus acidophilus nom. rev. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 33, 211–217 (1983)Google Scholar
- 30.American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM): Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass, ASTM-D2216-98. ASTM International (1998)Google Scholar
- 31.American Public Health Association (APHA): Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association-American Water Works Association-Water Environment Federation, pp. 61–68. American Public Health Association (APHA), Washington, DC (2012)Google Scholar
- 32.International Organization for Standardisation (ISO): Soil quality, Extraction of Trace Elements Soluble in Aqua Regia. ISO 11466 (1995)Google Scholar