Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 5, pp 1241–1249 | Cite as

Improvement of Pectinase Production by Co-culture of Bacillus spp. Using Apple Pomace as a Carbon Source

  • Ceren Kuvvet
  • Sibel Uzuner
  • Deniz CekmeceliogluEmail author
Original paper


Increasing interest in using food and agricultural wastes for low cost enzyme production continues in fermentation industry. Bacteria, especially Bacillus subtilis, are known to produce pectinases in synthetic media and media amended with agricultural wastes as a carbon source, whereas the potential of co-culturing Bacillus species to produce pectinases has not been fully studied yet. In this study, co-culture of B. subtilis and B. pumilus was optimized for solid load and pH to maximize pectinase production in submerged fermentation using apple pomace as the carbon source. Optimal pectinase activity was achieved as 11.25 IU/mL with 15% apple pomace (solid load), pH 9.0, and 1/4 of culture ratio (B. subtilis/B. pumilus) at 30 °C after 24 h of fermentation period according to the Box-Behnken response surface methodology. Thus, it was concluded that a twofold-increase in pectinase production was achieved by co-culturing of Bacillus spp. compared to our previous monoculture Bacillus study.

Graphical Abstract


Apple pomace Pectinases Submerged fermentation Bacillus subtilis Bacillus pumilus Mixed culture 



The authors are grateful to the Department of Food Engineering, Middle East Technical University, for laboratory facilities.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ceren Kuvvet
    • 1
  • Sibel Uzuner
    • 2
  • Deniz Cekmecelioglu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and ArchitectureAbant Izzet Baysal UniversityBoluTurkey

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