Advertisement

Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 681–690 | Cite as

Valorization of Capia Pepperseed Flour-I: Spreadable New Products Development

  • Hüseyin Bostanci
  • Selçuk Ok
  • Emin YilmazEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

The aim of this study was to utilize pepperseed flour in spreadable new product development. Two formulations, chocolate type and molasses type, were evaluated. Both formulations included 23.67 and 30.11% pepperseed flour, chocolate liquor or molasses as aroma source, sugar, palm oil, citric acid, potassium sorbate and lecithin as the ingredients. While ash and protein contents were similar, moisture and oil contents were different. Oil separation was observed only in chocolate type. Free acidity and peroxide values were low and below the limits. Some color differences were existed. Total phenolics and antioxidant capacity were higher in molasses type. Thermal analysis showed that both products were smooth and plastic at room temperature, and crystallizes only below fridge temperatures. In both products, linoleic (43–47%), palmitic (23–24%) and oleic (21–25%) acids were the main fatty acids, together with β-sitosterol (2200–2500 mg/kg), campesterol (350–600 mg/kg), and Δ5-avenasterol (230–550 mg/kg). Also 735.83 and 493.49 mg/kg total tocols were determined, respectively. Sixteen amino acids were quantified in samples, and glutamic acid, leucine, arginine and lysine in chocolate type, and glutamic acid, histidine, leucine and proline in molasses type were in higher concentrations. There were ten minerals quantified, and K, Na, Ca, and Mg were in higher amounts. This study proved that pepperseeds can be valorized in production of healthy, nutritious new products with minimal processing.

Keywords

Capia pepperseed Flour Spreadable Product Composition Quality 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by FYL-2016-896 project of the Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University. The authors thank for the support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Berke, T.G., Shieh, S.C.: Capsicum, chillies, paprika, bird’s eye chilli. In: Peter, K.V. (ed.) Handbook of herbs and spices, pp. 111–123. CRC Press, Boca Raton FL (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bosland, P.W., Votava, E.J.: Peppers: vegetable and spice capsicums, Second Edition. CABI, Cambridge (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lim, T.K.: Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants: volume 6, fruits, pp. 161–197. Springer Science + Business Media, Dordrecht (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    TÜİK: Vegetable production database. https://biruni.tuik.gov.tr/bitkiselapp/bitkisel.zul (2016). Accessed 07 April 2017
  5. 5.
    FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Statistical Databases. http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567#ancor (2013). Accessed 07 April 2017
  6. 6.
    Embaby, H.E., Mokhtar, S.M.: Chemical composition and nutritive value of lantana and sweet pepper seeds and nabak seed kernels. J. Food Sci. 76, C736-C741 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yılmaz, E., Arsunar, E.S., Aydeniz, A., Güneşer, O.: Cold pressed capia pepperseed (Capsicum Annuum L.) oils: composition, aroma, and sensory properties. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 117, 1016–1026 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yılmaz, E., Hüriyet, Z., Arifoğlu, N., Dündar Emir, D.: Functional properties of the capia pepper seed defatted press cakes. Waste Biomass Valorization. 8, 783–791 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yılmaz, E., Hürriyet, Z.: Physico-chemical and functional properties of extracted capia pepperseed (Capsicum Annuum L.) proteins. Waste Biomass Valorization. 8, 871–881 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fıratlıgil Durmuş, E.: Kırmızı biber tohumunun endüstriyel olarak değerlendirilmesi: protein ekstraksiyonu, fonksiyonel özellikleri ve mayonez üretiminde kullanımı. Ph.D. Thesis, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    AACC: Method 46-10.01. Crude protein-improved kjeldahl method. The American Association of Cereal Chemists, Minnesota (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    AOAC: Method 920.39. Crude fat & oil. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia, USA (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    AOCS: Official methods and recommended practices vol. I and II. American Oil Chemists’ Society (1997)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Re, R., Pellegini, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M., Rice, E.C.: Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biol. Med. 26, 1231–1237 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chotimarkorn, C., Benjakul, S., Silalai, N.: Antioxidative effects of rice bran extracts on refined tuna oil during storage. Food Res. Int. 41, 616–622 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    ISO: International standards official methods 12228:1999: Animal and vegetable fats and oils-determination of individual and total sterols contents—gas chromatographic method. Geneve (1999)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    TSE EN ISO: ISO 9936:2006 Method: Animal and vegetable fats and oils - determination of tocopherol and tocotrienol contents by high-performance liquid chromatogaphy (2006)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    AOAC: Official Method 991.43. Total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fibre in foods. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia (1995)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Minitab 16.1.1.: Statistical Software 2010. Minitab, Inc., State College (2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    SPSS: SPSS Professional Statistics (Version 10.1). SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA (1994)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tanti, R., Barbut, S., Marangoni, A.G.: Oil stabilization of natural peanut butter using food grade polymers. Food Hydrocolloids. 61, 399–408 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Meilgaard, M., Civille, G.V., Carr, B.T.: Sensory evaluation techniques. CRC Press, Boca Raton. (1991)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Capanoglu, E., Boyacıoglu, D.: Improving the quality and shelf life of Turkish almond paste. J. Food Qual. 31, 429–445 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lima, R.J., Garruti, D.S., Bruno, L.M.: Physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of cashew nut butter made from different kernel grades-quality. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 45, 180–185 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Özcan, M., Seven, S.: Physical and chemical analysis and fatty acid composition of peanut, peanut oil and peanut butter from ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars. Grasas Aceites. 54, 12–18 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Codex: Turkish food codex standard for named vegetable oils. Ankara, Turkey (1999)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hathorn, C.S., Sanders, T.H.: Flavor and antioxidant capacity of peanut paste and peanut butter supplemented with peanut skins. J. Food Sci. 77, S407–S411 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mayfield, S., Van de Walle, D., Delbaere, C., Shinn, S.E., Proctor, A., Dewettinck, K., Patel, A.: CLA‑rich chocolate bar and chocolate paste production and characterization. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 92, 1633–1642 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wahle, K.W.J., Heys, S.D., Rotondo, D.: Authorised EU health claims for the essential fatty acids: n-6 linoleic (18:2n-6) and n-3 a-linolenic (18:3n-3) acids. In: Sadler, M. (ed.) Foods, nutrients and food ingredients with authorised EU health claims: volume 2, pp. 219–236. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Katan, M.B., Grundy, S.M., Jones, P., Law, M., Miettinen, T., Paoletti, R.: Efficacy and safety of plant stanols and sterols in the management of blood cholesterol levels. Mayo Clin. Proc. 78, 965–978 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sheppard, A.J., Rudolf, T.S.: Analysis of peanuts and peanut products for total lipids, fatty acids and proximates. Peanut Sci. 18, 51–54 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Saldamlı, I., Temiz, A.: Amino asitler, peptitler, proteinler. In: Saldamlı, I. (ed.) Food chemistry, Fourth Edition, pp. 227–319. Publications of Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (2014)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    El-Rawas, A., Hvizdzak, A., Davenport, M., Beamer, S., Jaczynski, J., Matak, K.: Effect of electron beam irradiation on quality indicators of peanut butter over a storage period. Food Chem. 133, 212–219 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Köksel, H.: Karbonhidratlar. In: Saldamlı, I. (ed.) Food chemistry, Fourth Edition, pp. 47–135. Publications of Hacettepe University, Ankara (2014)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    El-Adawy, T.A., Taha, K.M.: Characteristics and compositions of different seed oils and flours. Food Chem. 74, 47–54 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ma, Y., Kerr, W.L., Swanson, R.B., Hargrove, J.L., Pegg, R.B.: Peanut skins-fortified peanut butters: effect of processing on the phenolics content, fibre content and antioxidant activity. Food Chem. 145, 883–891 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Villarroel, M., Biolly, E., San Martin, S., Estrada, G.: Chilean hazelnut butter, a new alternative for consumers. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 44, 131–136 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Galvao, L.C.A., Lopez, A., Williams, H.L.: Essential mineral elements in peanut and peanut butter. J. Food Sci. 41, 1305–1307 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringÇanakkale Onsekiz Mart UniversityÇanakkaleTurkey

Personalised recommendations