Hydrothermal Treatments of Cistus ladanifer Industrial Residues Obtained from Essential Oil Distilleries
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The aim of this study was to optimize hydrothermal treatments (autohydrolysis) for selective hydrolysis of hemicelluloses in the residues obtained from the industrial steam distillation of Cistus ladanifer (rock-rose) for essential oil extraction (CLR). The effect of the autohydrolysis in the removal of extractives of these residues was also evaluated.
The raw material was treated with water in a 6:1 liquid-to-solid ratio (w/w) and the effect of temperature (130–230 °C) on the composition of liquid and solid phases were evaluated and interpreted using the severity factor (log R0).
The highest recovery of oligosaccharides (24.7 g/L), corresponding to a yield of 28.4 g/100 g of CLR was obtained at moderate conditions, log R0 of 3.12. Together with hemicelluloses, polar extracts were also largely solubilized during the hydrothermal process yielding hydrolysates with a relevant concentration of phenolics. The highest glucan content (35.6 g/100 g of CLR) of the solid residue was obtained at more severe conditions, log R0 of 4.0 (220 °C). There was no apparent lignin solubilisation in any of the conditions, which is an advantage of this hydrolytic pretreatment.
Cistus ladanifer residues demonstrated to have potential to be used in the biorefinery framework with a full upgrade of all biomass fractions.
KeywordsAutohydrolysis Biorefinery Cistus ladanifer residues Extractives Oligosaccharides
Junia Alves-Ferreira is grateful to CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasília – DF 700 40−020, Brazil (doctoral scholarship – Process 9109/13−7). This work was supported by QREN Project “Biomassa Endógena”. Centro de Estudos Florestais is a research unit funded by FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (UID/AGR/00239/2013). Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas is a research unit funded by FCT (UID/AGR/00115/2013). The authors thank Joaquina Silva, Lídia Silva and Céu Penedo for their technical support.
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