Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 1043–1051 | Cite as

Co(II)-pyrophyllite as Catalyst for Phenol Oxidative Degradation: Optimization Study Using Response Surface Methodology

  • A. El Gaidoumi
  • A. Loqman
  • A. Chaouni Benadallah
  • B. El Bali
  • A. KherbecheEmail author
Original Paper


A cobalt supported clay catalyst was elaborated by an impregnation method. It was then tested as heterogeneous catalyst for the oxidation of phenol by hydrogen peroxide. The clay used as support is the natural local pyrophyllite. Both raw and modified clays were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Response surface methodology (RSM), based on central composite design (CCD), was applied. Influences of three operating parameters, namely temperature, hydrogen peroxide concentration and catalyst amount were selected for the optimization of the heterogeneous catalytic oxidation reaction. Based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), the quadratic model fits well with the experimental results. The maximum oxidation efficiency was found to be 70.18% under the optimum conditions of operational parameters (T = 50 °C; [H2O2] = 6.4 mmol L−1; catalyst amount = 1.7 g L−1). After 5.5 h of reaction under the optimum conditions, it was possible to degrade the phenol totally and with 75.21% of mineralization. This time is also sufficient for detoxification of polluted solution.


Supported clay Catalyst Oxidation Phenol Response surface Optimization 



The authors thank Professor José Antonio Navío Santos of the “Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (ICMS), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas CSIC”, University of Seville (Spain) for XPS analysis.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors of the present manuscript declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. El Gaidoumi
    • 1
  • A. Loqman
    • 1
  • A. Chaouni Benadallah
    • 1
  • B. El Bali
    • 1
  • A. Kherbeche
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Catalysis, Materials and Environment, Higher School of TechnologySidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah UniversityFezMorocco

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