Advertisement

Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 691–700 | Cite as

Integrated Economic and Environmental Assessment of Biogas and Bioethanol Production from Cassava Cellulosic Waste

  • Sivalee Trakulvichean
  • Pawinee Chaiprasert
  • Julia Otmakhova
  • Warinthorn SongkasiriEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Cassava cellulosic waste, or cassava bagasse or pulp, is a solid waste generated from both the coarse and fine extraction processes used for producing starch. Current disposal alternatives, such as selling the wet or dried pulp for animal feed, do not provide a high economic value. Furthermore, when stored at the factory the resulting microbial fermentation of the waste causes environmental pollution and a strong odor. The pulp still has a high starch content and so is suitable for other utilization purposes. The aim of this research was to use a direct economic and environment cost model to assess three potential high value-added renewable energy utilization alternatives for cassava pulp utilization to help define appropriate option(s) for on-site pulp management. The selected utilization options were the production of (i) biogas for heat generation, (ii) biogas for electricity generation and (iii) bioethanol. Primary and secondary data were collected from the literature, surveys and field data. The boundaries of data collection were set as gate-to-gate of a new unit in an existing starch factory with a receiving capacity of 500 t/d of pulp (equivalent to the pulp produced from a 200-t starch factory). The total production cost of each cassava pulp utilization option was calculated from both the economic and environmental cost. The most economically attractive scenario was the production of biogas for heat generation since it gave the highest net present value (NPV), net cash flow and return on sale. The biogas for heat generation option has the highest NPV sensitivity value in all case studies.

Keywords

Tapioca Waste management Renewable energy Pulp Thailand 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Thailand Research Fund through the Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program (Grant No. 2.B.KT/52/N1) to Ms. Sivalee Trakulvichean and Dr. Warinthorn Songkasiri. We gratefully acknowledge Choncharoen Co., Ltd. and other starch factories for information.

References

  1. 1.
    FAOSTAT: Statistical databases. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Available at: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home (2016). Accessed 1 December 2016
  2. 2.
    Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE), Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives: Agricultural statistics of Thailand, agricultural statistics document. http://www.oae.go.th/download/download_journal/2559/yearbook58.pdf (2015). Accessed 1 December 2016
  3. 3.
    Curran, M.A.: Life Cycle Assessment: Principles and Practice, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development. US Environmental Protection Agency, Ohio (2006)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    United Nations (UN): Division for sustainable development, expert working group on” improving the role of government in the promotion of environmental management accounting”, Bundesministerium für Verkehr, & innovation und technologie. Environmental management accounting policies and linkages. United Nations Publications, Austria. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/proceduresandprinciples.pdf (2002). Accessed 1 January 2017
  5. 5.
    Utne, I.B.: Life cycle cost (LCC) as a tool for improving sustainability in the Norwegian fishing fleet. J. Clean. Prod. 17(3), 335–344 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rattanachomsri, U., Tanapongpipat, S., Eurwilaichitr, L., Champreda, V.: Simultaneous non-thermal saccharification of cassava pulp by multi-enzyme activity and ethanol fermentation by Candida tropicalis. J. Biosci. Bioeng. (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2008.12.024 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Glanpracha, N., Annachhatre, A.P.: Anaerobic co-digestion of cyanide containing cassava pulp with pig manure. Bioresour. Technol. (2016). doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2016.04.079 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Virunanon, C., Ouephanit, C., Burapatana, V., Chulalaksananukul, W.: Cassava pulp enzymatic hydrolysis process as a preliminary step in bio-alcohols production from waste starchy resources. J. Clean. Prod. (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2008.08.009 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sriroth, K., Kosinsenee, S., Piyachomkan, K., Keawsompong, S., Chatakanonda, P., Wanlapatit, S.: Development of Ethanol Production from Agricultural Waste with Minimal Production Cost and Environmentally Friendly Process. Kasetsart University, Thailand (2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA): Report of Project Impact Under the Promotion of Biotechnology for Industrial Plans of Technology Utilization in Thailand, National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Pathumthani (2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eaton, G.: Management Accounting Official Terminology. Vol. 62C, CIMA Publishing Inc., Newnes (2005a)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jovanović, P.: Application of sensitivity analysis in investment project evaluation under uncertainty and risk. Int. J. Project Manag. (1999). doi: 10.1016/S0263-7863(98)000350 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eaton, G.: Management Accounting Official Terminology. Vol. 24C. CIMA Publishing Inc., Newnes (2005b)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gloria, T.P., Lippiatt, B.C., Cooper, J.: Life cycle impact assessment weights to support environmentally preferable purchasing in the United States. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2007). doi: 10.1021/es070750+ Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Thailand greenhouse gas management organization (Public organization): Carbon market, agricultural statistics document. http://carbonmarket.tgo.or.th (2016). Accessed 1 December 2016
  16. 16.
    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/ (2006). Accessed 1 January 2017
  17. 17.
    Leng, R., Wang, C., Zhang, C., Dai, D., Pu, G.: Life cycle inventory and energy analysis of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China. J. Cleaner Prod. (2008) doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2006.12.003 Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Silalertruksa, T., Gheewala, S.H.: Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand. Energy (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2009.08.002 Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jakrawatana, N., Pingmuangleka, P., Gheewala, S.H.: J. Cleaner Prod. (2016). doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.06.139 Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Numjuncharoen, T., Papong, S., Malakul, P., Mungcharoen, T.: Life-cycle GHG emissions of cassava-based bioethanol production. Energy Procedia (2015). doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.477 Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nguyen, T.L.T., Gheewala, S.H., Garivait, S.: Energy balance and GHG-abatement cost of cassava utilization for fuel ethanol in Thailand. Energy Policy (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2007.03.012 Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Department of Industrial Works (DIW): Operations Manual on the Design, Production and Quality Control and Biogas Utilization for Industry. Department of Industrial Works (DIW) of Thailand, Bangkok (2009)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kwangkaeo, J., Wangjiranirun, W.: Value added analysis for ethanol plant using cassava. J. Energy. 3, 33–45 (2012)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Suwanasri, K., Trakulvichean, S., Grudloyma, U., Songkasiri, W., Commins, T., Chaiprasert, P., Tanticharoen, M.: Biogas: key success factors for promotion in Thailand Special Issue. J. Sustain. Energy Environ. 25:30 (2015)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kosugi, A., Kondo, A., Ueda, M., Murat, Y., Vaithanomsat, P., Thanapase, W., Arai, T., Mori, Y.: Production of ethanol from cassava pulp via fermentation with a surface-engineered yeast strain displaying glucoamylase. Renew. Energy (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2008.09.002 Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sriroth, K., Chollakup, R., Chotineeranat, S., Piyachomkwan, K., Oates, C.G.: Processing of cassava waste for improved biomass utilization. Bioresour. Technol. (2000). doi: 10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00051-6 Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Azapagic, A., Emsley, A., Hamerton, I.: Polymers: The Environment and Sustainable Development. Wiley, New York (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jensen, A.A., Elkington, J., Christiansen, K., Hoffmann, L., Moller, B.T., Schmidt, A., Dijk, F.V.: Life Cycle Assessment: A Guide to Approaches, Experiences and Information sources, Report to European Environment Agency. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen (1997)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wenzel, H., Hauschild, M., Alting, L.: Environmental Assessment of Products. Volume 1: Methodology, Tools and Case Studies in Product Development. Springer, New York (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bergerson, J., Lave, L.: A Life Cycle Analysis of Electricity Generation Technologies, Health and Environmental Implications of Alternative Fuels and Technologies. Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center, Pittsburgh (2002)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    EEA: EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory guidebook—2009. Vol. 83, European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen, (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sivalee Trakulvichean
    • 1
  • Pawinee Chaiprasert
    • 1
  • Julia Otmakhova
    • 2
  • Warinthorn Songkasiri
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Biotechnology, School of Bioresources and TechnologyKing Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT)BangkokThailand
  2. 2.Faculty of Economics, Food Security Research CenterNovosibirsk State UniversityNovosibirskRussia
  3. 3.Excellent Center for Waste Utilization and Management (ECoWaste)National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC)BangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations