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Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 529–549 | Cite as

Biotransformation of Citrus By-Products into Value Added Products

  • Diomi Mamma
  • Paul ChristakopoulosEmail author
Review

Abstract

Citrus by-products are the processing wastes generated after citrus juice extraction and constitute about 50 % of fresh fruit weight. This solid residue comprised of peel (flavedo and albedo), pulp (juice sac residue), rag (membranes and cores) and seeds. The disposal of the fresh peels is becoming a major problem to many factories. Usually, citrus juice industries dry the residue and it is either sold as raw material for pectin extraction or pelletized for animal feeding, though none of these processes is very profitable. This residual material is a poor animal feed supplement because of its extremely low protein content and high amount of sugar. The application of agroindustrial by-products in bioprocesses offers a wide range of alternative substrates, thus helping solve pollution problems related to their disposal. This article reviews attempts that have been made to use citrus by-products to generate several value-added products, such as essential oils, pectin, enzymes, single cell protein, natural antioxidants, ethanol, organic acids, and prebiotics.

Keywords

Citrus wastes Green productivity Bioconversion Upgrading Enzymes Biofuels Antioxidants Review 

Abbreviations

AG-I

Arabinogalactan I

BOD

Biological oxygen demand

BPF

By-product feedstuffs

COD

Chemical oxygen demand

CPW

Citrus peels waste

CW

Citrus waste

D.I.C.

Instantaneous controlled pressure drop

DCP

Dried citrus pulp

DF

Dietary fibre

DM

Dry matter

GHG

Greenhouse gas

HG

Homogalacturonan

HR

Hairy regions

IDF

Insoluble dietary fibre

MHG

Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity

MP

Mandarin peel

MSDf

Microwave steam diffusion

OLR

Organic loading rate

OPP

Orange-pulp pellets

POS

Pectic oligosaccharides

RG-I

Rhamnogalacturonan-I

RG-II

Rhamnogalacturonan-II

SCP

Single cell protein

SDF

Soluble dietary fibre

SFME

Solvent free microwave extraction

SHF

Separate hydrolysis and fermentation

SmF

Submerged fermentation

SSF

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

SWE

Subcritical water extraction

TOC

Total organic carbon

VMHD

Vacuum microwave hydro distillation

VS

Volatile solids

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Biochemical and Chemical Process Engineering, Division of Sustainable Process Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources EngineeringLuleå University of TechnologyLuleåSweden

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