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Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 557–581 | Cite as

Complex Effluent Streams as a Potential Source of Volatile Fatty Acids

  • Myrto-Panagiota ZacharofEmail author
  • Robert W. Lovitt
Original Paper

Abstract

The recovery of volatile fatty acids (VFA), from complex effluent streams deriving from numerous sources has been an area of research interest for more than a century. In the current era, technological and economic development is widely based on the limited global petroleum resources. Regardless the scarcity faced in coal based fuels, VFA are still extensively and in most cases solely, synthesised from petroleum. With the constantly rising awareness of the environmental impact the carbon based economy has created, research has been focused in developing alternative methods of their production. These include fermentation, anaerobic digestion and recovery from discharged chemical and industrial plants effluents. During these processes, the hydrolysis of target solid wastes followed by the microbial conversion of them to biodegradable organic, content results in the production of intermediate VFA, commonly acetate and butyrate. These, are detected at varying concentrations in the effluent streams and mixed liquors of the reactor systems. Their concentration is depending on hydraulic, retention and organic loading rates. Several studies have shown possible environmental and commercial benefits using various techniques for their separation and recovery. Among these, extensively applied has been reactive extraction. Currently, membrane filtration is most prominent as a source separation process in comparison to integral wastewater treatment. VFA reclamation benefits include the formulation of a valorisized waste effluent that can be further processed for the recovery of valuable nutrients, the relief of municipal treatment plants and the recycle and re-use of favorable nutrients and chemicals.

Keywords

Waste effluents Fermentation Volatile fatty acids Recovery Nanofiltration 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Dr. Esteves Sandra and Pr. Guwy Alan, Sustainable Environment Research Centre (SERC), Glamorgan University for their valuable comments to the writing of the research summarised here. The present work benefited from the input of Dr. Charalambidou Anna, Department of Humanities, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, European University of Cyprus who provided helpful comments to the writing of this manuscript. This project was supported by Low Carbon Research Institute (LCRI) project grant title “Wales H2 Cymru”.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Myrto-Panagiota Zacharof
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Robert W. Lovitt
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Multidisciplinary Nanotechnology Centre (MNC), College of EngineeringSwansea UniversitySwanseaUK
  2. 2.Centre for Complex Fluid Processing (CCFP), College of EngineeringSwansea UniversitySwanseaUK
  3. 3.Centre for Water Advanced Technologies and Environmental Research (CWATER), College of EngineeringSwansea UniversitySwanseaUK

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