Advertisement

Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 259–269 | Cite as

Environmental, Economical and Marketing Aspects of the Operation of a Waste-to-Energy Plant in the Kotsiatis Landfill in Cyprus

  • P. G. Savva
  • C. N. Costa
  • A. G. CharalambidesEmail author
Case study

Abstract

Based on the current 2008/98/EC Directive, EU Member States are obliged to establish a waste management plan, waste prevention programmes by the end of 2013 and ensure that the general public will have the opportunity to participate in the elaboration of such plans and programmes. Energy recovery is one of the options laid down in the Directive as a possible solution and thus, the current study focuses on the environmental, technical, economical and marketing aspects of the operation of a modern Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plant in the Kotsiatis landfill. The present study includes the analysis of WtE plant aspects, such as the public’s opinions, marketing and promotional activities, environmental depollution, financing options and operational costs. Personal interviews were conducted in the villages around the Kotsiatis landfill, and the techno economical study was based on the available literature. Results have shown that the construction of a WtE plant in the area will improve the quality of life of the habitants, reduce the current environmental problems, and that it is economically viable without governmental subsidy. The construction of a WtE plant that will be capable of incinerating 100,000 tonnes of waste/year will result to 11 MW of reliable power, in addition to the environmental benefits. The Net Present Value of such an investment will be €2,655,730 with an Internal Rate of Return of 10.5 %. However, the general public in the Kotsiatis village is against the construction of such a plant, but this is due to the lack of trustworthy information about incineration technologies (and renewable energy in general) from the local media. On the contrary, the general public in the vicinity of the area is in favour of a WtE plant, as they acknowledge the potential benefits.

Keywords

Waste-to-Energy Kotsiatis landfill in Cyprus Techno-economical assessment Public opinion 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors will like to acknowledge the assistance of the students enrolled in the “Renewable Energy Sources” course of the Master in Resource Management of the Department of Environmental Science and Technology of the Cyprus University of Technology for conducting the questionnaire and collecting the necessary data.

References

  1. 1.
    UNEP: Regional Study on Policies and Institutional Assessment of Solid Waste Management in Cyprus (2000)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Environment Service: Strategic Plan for the Management of Solid and Hazardous Waste (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Environment Service of Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment: Report under the Decision No 280/2004/EC (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Medcities: Guidelines for municipal solid waste management in the Mediterranean region, http://www.medcities.org/ (2003)
  5. 5.
    Castaldi, M.J., Themelis, N.J.: The case for increasing the global capacity for waste to energy (WTE). Waste Biomass Valorization 1(1), 91–105 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cheng, H., Hu, Y.: Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of energy: current and future practices in China. Bioresour. Technol. 101, 3816–3824 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Porteous, A.: Energy from waste incineration—a state of the art emissions review with an emphasis on public acceptability. Appl. Energ. 70, 157–167 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fruergaard, T., Hyks, J., Astrup, T.: Life-cycle assessment of selected management options for air pollution control residues from waste incineration. Sci. Total Environ. 408, 4672–4680 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lolos T., Koullapis G., Lolos G., Paschali-Manou K., Tsobanidis C., Georgiou I. and Panagoulopoulos A.: Risk assessment and evaluation of uncontrolled landfill sites in Cyprus. Information Exchange and Awareness Raising Event on Landfill of Waste in Nicosia. (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Enviroplan, S.A.: The strategic plan for solid waste management in Cyprus (2002)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    European Commission DG Environment: Final Report, Analysis of the evolution of waste reduction and the scope of waste prevention (2010)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Koufodimos, G., Samaras, Z.: Waste management options in southern Europe using field and experimental data. Waste Manag. 22, 47–59 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Environment Service: Strategic Plan for the Management of Solid and Hazardous Waste (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kalia, V.C., Joshi, A.P.: Conversion of waste biomass (pea-shells) into hydrogen and methane through anaerobic digestion. Bioresour. Technol. 53(2), 165–168 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen, S.-J., Hsieh, L.-T., Hwang, W.-I., Xu, H.-C., Kao, J.-H.: Abatement of odor emissions from landfills using natural effective microorganism enzyme. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 3(1), 87–99 (2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bogner, J., Matthews, E.: Global methane emissions from landfills: new methodology and annual estimates 1980–1996. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 17(2), 1065 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reinhart, D.R., Townsend, T.G., Eun, S., Xu, Q.: Control of odors from construction and demolition (C&D) Debris Landfills. Report #0232004-04, Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, Gainesville, FL (2004)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Flynn, B.: Invisible threat odors and landfill gas from C&D waste. Waste Age, 91–97 (1998)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Costa, C.N., Valanidou, L., Savva, P.G., Theologides, C.: Novel Catalyst for the Reduction of NO to N2 With Ethanol or Ethanol With Hydrogen Under Lean De-NOX Conditions. European Patent Application No. 10390001.5—2104 (filed on December 2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Costa, C.N., Savva, P.G., Fierro, J.L.G., Efstathiou, A.M.: Industrial H2-SCR of NO on a novel Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst. Appl. Catal. B Environ. 75, 147–156 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Meyer, D.E., Sikdar, S.K., Hutson, N.D., Bhattacharyya, D.: Examination of sulfur-functionalized, copper-doped iron nanoparticles for vapor-phase mercury capture in entrained-flow and fixed-bed Systems. Energ. Fuels 21(5), 2688–2697 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Erdem, E., Karapinar, N., Donat, R.: The removal of heavy metal cations by natural zeolites. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 280(2), 309–314 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    European Commission: Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control: Reference Document on the Best Available Techniques for Waste Incineration (2006)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Transmission System Operator—Cyprus, http://www.dsm.org.cy (2011)
  25. 25.
    Corporation, U.R.S.: Summary report: evaluation of alternative solid waste processing technologies. City of Los Angeles Department of Public Works, Los Angeles (2005)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Michaels, T.: Burgeoning Prospects for Waste-to-Energy in the United States. Energy Recovery Council. Presentation from a AIChe Webinar from the following website http://apps.aiche.org/ChemEOnDemand/content/documents/4327a8b0-b424-45c6-a5bc-898ec54ca716_20100310-MichaelsT-BurgeoningProspects.pdf (2010)
  27. 27.
    Economopoulos, A.P.: Διαχείριση Οικιακού Τύπου Απορριμμάτων/Προβλήματα Εθνικού Σχεδιασμού και Ορθολογικές Λύσεις (Domestic Waste Management/National Planning Problems and Rational Solutions), University of Crete (ISBN: 978-960-631-832-0) (in Greek) (2007)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Economopoulos, A.P.: Technoeconomic aspects of alternative municipal solid wastes treatment methods. Waste Manag. 30(4), 707–715 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. G. Savva
    • 1
  • C. N. Costa
    • 1
  • A. G. Charalambides
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and TechnologyCyprus University of TechnologyLimassolCyprus

Personalised recommendations