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Indian Journal of Physics

, Volume 86, Issue 5, pp 323–334 | Cite as

VLF signals in summer and winter in the Indian sub-continent using multi-station campaigns

  • S. K. ChakrabartiEmail author
  • S. K. Mondal
  • S. Sasmal
  • S. Pal
  • T. Basak
  • S. Chakrabarti
  • D. Bhowmick
  • S. Ray
  • S. K. Maji
  • A. Nandi
  • V. K. Yadav
  • T. B. Kotoch
  • B. Khadka
  • K. Giri
  • S. K. Garain
  • A. K. Choudhury
  • N. N. Partra
  • N. Iqbal
Original Paper

Abstract

We have carried out 2 week-long campaigns in Indian winter and summer to study VLF signals from the Indian navy transmitter (VTX) operating at 18.2 kHz. We have used more than a dozen of receivers scattered throughout the Indian sub-continent in each of these campaigns. To our knowledge, this is the largest campaign of its kind in this region. The propagation paths range from 500 km to almost 3,000 km covering an area of about 4 million sq km. We have presented the results of the amplitude variation of the diurnal signal at each of these receiving stations in winter and summer and compare them. We have clearly found the non-reciprocity of the east to west and west to east propagation. Our results generally agree with the signal shapes obtained using the long wave propagation capability code based on mode propagation through the Earth-ionosphere cavity.

Keywords

Radio waves Waveguides D-region Ionosphere 

PACS Nos.

41.20.Jb 84.40.Az 94.20.de 94.20.wq 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Ram C Das, Somnath Midya, Partha S Pal, Chandra B Singh, Dilip D Joshi, M Thakkar, and S Mandal for helping at various stages to procure the data. They also thank D Sulic with the LWPC code. The research work of S K Mondal was supported by CSIR grant. The research works of S Sasmal and S Ray are supported by RESPOND project of ISRO.

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Copyright information

© Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. K. Chakrabarti
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • S. K. Mondal
    • 2
  • S. Sasmal
    • 2
  • S. Pal
    • 1
  • T. Basak
    • 1
  • S. Chakrabarti
    • 2
  • D. Bhowmick
    • 2
  • S. Ray
    • 2
  • S. K. Maji
    • 2
  • A. Nandi
    • 2
  • V. K. Yadav
    • 2
  • T. B. Kotoch
    • 2
  • B. Khadka
    • 2
  • K. Giri
    • 1
  • S. K. Garain
    • 1
  • A. K. Choudhury
    • 2
  • N. N. Partra
    • 3
  • N. Iqbal
    • 4
  1. 1.SN Bose National Centre for Basic SciencesKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Indian Centre for Space PhysicsKolkataIndia
  3. 3.NCRA/TIFRPuneIndia
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsUniversity of KashmirSrinagarIndia

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