Psychological Studies

, Volume 64, Issue 4, pp 429–435 | Cite as

Entrepreneurial Passion, Self-efficacy, and Spiritual Intelligence among Iranian SME Owner–Managers

  • Farzad FesharakiEmail author
Research in Progress


This research aims to explore the concept of entrepreneurial passion among private sector business people and study the effects of spiritual intelligence and self-efficacy on developing and enhancing its levels. Structural equations modeling approach is being utilized. Drawing on a survey conducted among a sample of SME owner–managers in an industrial park in Tehran (Iran), it has been verified that spiritual intelligence and self-efficacy are positively associated with two dimensions of entrepreneurial passion (passion for inventing and passion for founding). However, their impact on the third dimension (passion for developing) is not statistically significant. Entrepreneurial passion is a newly formed construct in the intersection of entrepreneurship and psychological studies of the workplace literature. Empirically proved to be an effective motivator for initiating economic activities, sufficient theoretical explanations in this field are yet to come. This study is one of the first to investigate the issue in the context of a developing nation.


Spiritual intelligence Entrepreneurial passion Self-efficacy Iranian context SME managers 



  1. Alavi, S. (2016). The influence of workforce agility on external manufacturing flexibility of Iranian SMEs. International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development,8(1), 111–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antoncic, B., Antoncic, J., & Aaltonen, H. M. (2016). Marketing self-efficacy and firm creation. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development,23(1), 90–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashmos, D. P., & Duchon, D. (2000). Spirituality at work: A conceptualization and measure. Journal of Management Inquiry,9(2), 134–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atari, M., Barbaro, N., Shackelford, T. K., & Chegeni, R. (2017). Psychometric evaluation and cultural correlates of the mate retention inventory–short form (MRI-SF) in Iran. Evolutionary Psychology, 15(1), 23–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biraglia, A., & Kadile, V. (2017). The role of entrepreneurial passion and creativity in developing entrepreneurial intentions: Insights from American homebrewers. Journal of Small Business Management,55(1), 170–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Breugst, N., Domurath, A., Patzelt, H., & Klaukien, A. (2012). Perceptions of entrepreneurial passion and employees’ commitment to entrepreneurial ventures. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice,36(1), 171–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campos, H. M. (2016). The role of creativity in mediating the relationship between entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial alertness. Revista brasileira de gestão de negócios,18(61), 457–472.Google Scholar
  8. Cardon, M. S., Gregoire, D. A., Stevens, C. E., & Patel, P. C. (2013). Measuring entrepreneurial passion: Conceptual foundations and scale validation. Journal of Business Venturing,28(3), 373–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cardon, M. S., Post, C., & Forster, W. R. (2017). Team entrepreneurial passion: Its emergence and influence in new venture teams. Academy of Management Review,42(2), 283–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cardon, M. S., Wincent, J., Singh, J., & Drnovsek, M. (2009). The nature and experience of entrepreneurial passion. Academy of Management Review,34(3), 511–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Emmons, R. A. (1999). The psychology of ultimate concerns: Motivation and spirituality in personality. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  12. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gardner, H. (2011). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  14. Godwin, J. L., Neck, C. P., & D’Intino, R. S. (2016). Self-leadership, spirituality, and entrepreneur performance: A conceptual model. Journal of management, spirituality & religion,13(1), 64–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gupta, G. (2012). Spiritual intelligence and emotional intelligence in relation to self-efficacy and self-regulation among college students. International Journal of Social Sciences and Interdisciplinary Research,1(2), 60–70.Google Scholar
  16. Henseler, J., Hubona, G., & Ray, P. A. (2016). Using PLS path modeling in new technology research: Updated guidelines. Industrial Management & Data Systems,116(1), 2–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kaur, D., Sambasivan, M., & Kumar, N. (2013). Effect of spiritual intelligence, emotional intelligence, psychological ownership and burnout on caring behavior of nurses: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Clinical Nursing,22(21–22), 3192–3202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. King, D. B., & DeCicco, T. L. (2009). A viable model and self-report measure of spiritual intelligence. International journal of transpersonal studies,28(1), 8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Labouvie-Vief, G. (2015). Integrating emotions and cognition throughout the lifespan. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lukas, K., Kerrick, S. A., Haugen, J., & Crider, C. J. (2016). Communicating entrepreneurial passion: Personal passion vs perceived passion in venture pitches. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication,59(4), 363–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods,7(1), 83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Martin, T. N., & Hafer, J. C. (2009). Models of emotional intelligence, spiritual intelligence, and performance: A test of Tischler, Biberman, and McKeage. Journal of Management, spirituality and Religion,6(3), 247–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mobini-Dehkordi, A., Mobaraki, M. H., & Khleghi, A. (2015). Identifying the effect of spiritual intelligence on entrepreneurial passion mediated by ideal entrepreneurial identity. Entrepreneurship Development,8(3), 453–472.Google Scholar
  24. Murnieks, C. Y., Mosakowski, E., & Cardon, M. S. (2014). Pathways of passion: Identity centrality, passion, and behavior among entrepreneurs. Journal of Management,40(6), 1583–1606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Noori, J., Nasrabadi, M. B., Yazdi, N., & Babakhan, A. R. (2016). Innovative performance of Iranian knowledge-based firms: Large firms or SMEs. Technological Forecasting & Social Change,122, 179–185. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology,88(5), 879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rahmati, M., Karimirad, A., & Mdanizaheh, S. A. (2016). Can international sanctions cause stagnation? A macroeconomic analysis of international sanctions on iran’s economy. Doctoral dissertation, Sharif University of Technology.Google Scholar
  28. Ramachandaran, S. D., Krauss, S. E., Krauss, S. E., Hamzah, A., Hamzah, A., & Idris, K. (2017). Effectiveness of the use of spiritual intelligence in women academic leadership practice. International Journal of Educational Management,31(2), 160–178.Google Scholar
  29. Rezaei, S., Dana, L. P., & Ramadani, V. (2017a). Iranian entrepreneurship: Deciphering the entrepreneurial ecosystem in Iran and in the Iranian diaspora. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rezaei, S., Dana, L. P., & Ramadani, V. (Eds.). (2017b). Iranian entrepreneurship: Deciphering the entrepreneurial ecosystem in Iran and in the Iranian diaspora. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Rezaeian, M., & Wynn, M. G. (2016). Implementing integrated software solutions in Iranian SMEs. In eKNOW 2016, the eighth international conference on information, process, and knowledge management (pp. 76–84).Google Scholar
  32. Schwarzer, R. (2014). Self-efficacy: Thought control of action. Routledge: Taylor & Francis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sherer, M., Maddux, J. E., Mercandante, B., Prentice-Dunn, S., Jacobs, B., & Rogers, R. W. (1982). The self-efficacy scale: Construction and validation. Psychological Reports,51(2), 663–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Stenholm, P., & Nielsen, M. S. (2015). Emotional support and passion matters: How emotional support impacts survival through entrepreneurial passion. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research,35(5), 12.Google Scholar
  35. Sulastri, S., Hasiholan, L. B., & Warso, M. M. (2016). Effect of spiritual intelligence on the performance of employees. Journal of Management,2(2), 44–70.Google Scholar
  36. Winnen, C. J. (2005). To be or not to be: The role of passion and obsession in the entrepreneurial process. Unpublished doctoral dissertation University of St. Thomas, St. Paul.Google Scholar
  37. Yong, A. G., & Pearce, S. (2013). A beginner’s guide to factor analysis: Focusing on exploratory factor analysis. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology,9(2), 79–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zamiri, S., Azizi, S., & Shakeri, A. (2016). Predicting self-efficacy of students based on their spiritual intelligence. Journal of Sabzevar Medical Sciences University,23(2), 196–207.Google Scholar
  39. Zohar, D. (2012). Spiritual intelligence: The ultimate intelligence. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© National Academy of Psychology (NAOP) India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Allameh Tabataba’i UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations