Advertisement

Psychological Studies

, Volume 60, Issue 3, pp 292–301 | Cite as

A Dörnyei-Inspired Study on Second Language Motivation: A Cross-Comparison Analysis in Public and Private Contexts

  • Afsaneh GhanizadehEmail author
  • Soroor Rostami
Research in Progress

Abstract

Dörnyei’s L2 (second language) Motivational Self System and his landmark study on individual differences in language learning (2005) stimulated lines of research seeking to validate the model in different countries and cultures. The present study takes the initiative to test Dörnyei’s model in two strikingly different milieus of language learning − public vs. private − which diverge in various respects such as learning objectives, teaching approaches and methods, the extent of volition over attendance, age of attendants, and teacher and learner roles. Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self System measuring ten factors was employed to inform the present research. A total of 905 learners, 413 high school students and 492 institute EFL learners completed the Persian version of Dörnyei’s questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was run to analyze the models of motivation in the two contexts. The results indicated that in the public context of Iran the model (Model 1) did not demonstrate a good fit with the empirical data; nevertheless, in the private context of Iran the model (Model 2) displayed a good fit. To pinpoint the discrepancies observed in the two models, each individual path indicating the causal relationships was analyzed in depth. In particular, it was revealed that the predictive role of attitudes to L2 culture in ideal L2 self was not confirmed in Model 1; whereas, it was demonstrated in Model 2. In Model 1, it was found that instrumentality promotion has a weak impact on ideal L2 self. In Model 2, on the other hand, the results indicated that instrumentality promotion is a strong predictor of ideal L2 self. The contribution of ideal L2 self to attitudes and to criterion measure was demonstrated. The magnitude of these associations, nevertheless, was higher in the second model. The positive impact of ought-to L2 self on criterion measure was also verified in both models. Unlike the previous paths, this association was outweighed in Model 1. The role of instrumentality prevention in ought-to L2 self was verified in Model 1 but not in Model 2. The discussion and implications of the findings are presented with reference to these findings.

Keywords

L2 Motivational Self system Public context Private context Structural equation modeling 

References

  1. Brander, A. (2013). Developing language learners with Dörnyei: A study of learning environments and motivation at a Swedish upper-secondary school. Unpublished dissertation. Sweden: University of Högskolan.Google Scholar
  2. Cheng, H. F., & Dörnyei, Z. (2007). The use of motivational strategies in language instruction: the case of EFL teaching in Taiwan. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 153–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Csizér, K., & Kormos, J. (2009). Learning experiences, selves and motivated learning behavior: a comparative analysis of structural models for Hungarian secondary and university learners of English. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda. (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp.98–119). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  4. Dastgheib, A. (1996). The role attitudes and motivation in second/foreign language learning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Tehran: Islamic Azad University, Science & Research Branch.Google Scholar
  5. Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  6. Dörnyei, Z. (2010). Researching motivation: From integrativeness to the ideal L2 self. In S. Hunston & D. Oakey (Eds.), Introducing applied linguistics: Concepts and skills (pp. 74–83). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (2009). Motivation, language identity and the L2 self. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  8. Gardner, R. C. (1979). Social psychological aspect of second language acquisition. In H. Giles & J. Clair (Eds.), Language and social psychology (pp. 193–220). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  9. Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  10. Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. (1959). Motivational variables in second language acquisition. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 13, 266–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ghaffarzadeh Hassankiadeh, M. (2013). Schools vs. institutes in learning a foreign language: for Iranian EFL learners. International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 1(1), 40–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ghanizadeh, A., & Ghonsooly, B. (2014). A tripartite model of EFL teachers’ attributions, burnout, and self-regulation: towards the prospects of effective teaching. Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 13(2), 145–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ghonsooly, B., & Ghanizadeh, A. (2013). Self-efficacy and self-regulation and their relationship: a study of Iranian EFL teachers. The Language Learning Journal, 41(1), 68–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Islam, M., Lamb, M., & Chambers, G. (2013). The L2 Motivational Self System and national interest: a Pakistani perspective. System, 41(4), 231–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Keihaniyan, M. (2011). Teaching methodology and motivation: comparison of Iranian English private institute and high school. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(3), 588–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kormos, J., Kiddle, T., & Csizér, K. (2011). Systems of goals, attitudes, and self-related beliefs in second-language-learning motivation. Applied Linguistics, 32(5), 495–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lamb, M. (2012). A self-system perspective on young adolescents’ motivation to learn English in urban and rural settings. Language Learning, 62(4), 997–1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Matsumoto, H., Hiromori, T., & Nakayama, A. (2013). Toward a tripartite model of L2 reading strategy use, motivations, and learner beliefs. System, 41(1), 38–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McClelland, N. (2000). Goal orientations in Japanese college students learning EFL. In S. Cornwell & P. Robinson (Eds.), Individual differences in foreign language learning: Effects of aptitude, intelligence, and motivation (pp. 99–115). Tokyo: Japanese Association for Language Teaching.Google Scholar
  20. Ostovar Namaghi, S. A. (2006). Forces seeing language teachers’ work in public high schools in Iran. The Reading Matrix, 6(2), 90–105.Google Scholar
  21. Papi, M. (2010). The L2 motivational self system, L2 anxiety, and motivated behavior: a structural equation modeling approach. System, 38, 467–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Papi, M., & Teimouri, Y. (2012). Dynamics of selves and motivation: a cross-sectional study in the EFL context of Iran. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 22(3), 287–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Peugh, J. L., & Enders, C. K. (2004). Missing data in educational research: a review of reporting practices and suggestions for improvement. Review of Educational Research, 74(4), 525–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rajab, A., Roohbakhsh Far, H., & Etemadzadeh, A. (2012). The relationship between L2 motivational self-system and L2 learning among TESL students in Iran. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 66, 419–424.Google Scholar
  25. Schreiber, J. B., Nora, A., Stage, F. K., Barlow, E. A., & King, J. (2006). Reporting structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis results: a review. The Journal of Educational Research, 99(6), 323–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Taguchi, T., Magid, M., & Papi, M. (2009). The L2 motivational self system among Japanese, Chinese, and Iranian learners of English: A comparative study. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 66–97). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  27. Takahashi, C. K. (2013). Ideal L2 self and university English learners: an interview study. The Language Teacher, 37(6), 3–8.Google Scholar
  28. Watabe, K. M. (2010). Motivational influences affecting female long-term learners of English in Japan. Unpublished MA dissertation. Manavatu: University of Massey.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© National Academy of Psychology (NAOP) India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EnglishImam Reza International UniversityMashhadIran
  2. 2.Imam Reza International UniversityMashhadIran

Personalised recommendations