Psychological Studies

, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 38–41

Unity and diversity of views on intelligence and consciousness: Where the East meets the West

Original Article


Intelligence is a cognitive function. Cognitive processing is a common base for cognitive theories of intelligence in both the East (India) and in the West (Europe and America). I first review the Eastern view of intelligence and its relation to consciousness. I argue that the study of consciousness has been accepted in Western psychology as a legitimate topic since William James, then present further discussion on the topic from Hindu and Buddhist philosophies. In essence, it is about awareness and the means of achieving a pure state of awareness through self-directed attention to internal thoughts, rather than external objects. The validity of a first-person observation of consciousness then becomes an important issue as well as the question of a non-physical mind. The paper concludes that using introspective reflection as a tool to explore consciousness is supported by both views.


Consciousness Eastern intelligence Intelligence 


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Copyright information

© National Academy of Psychology (NAOP) India 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Das Develpmental Disabilities CentreUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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