Chlorpyrifos Exposure Induces Parkinsonian Symptoms and Associated Bone Loss in Adult Swiss Albino Mice
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Prenatal and early life exposure of chlorpyrifos (CPF), a widely used pesticide, is known to cause neuronal deficits and Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, data about the effect of its exposure at adult stages on PD-like symptoms and associated bone loss is scanty. In the present study, we investigated the impact of CPF on the behavioral alterations seen in PD using adult Swiss albino mice. PD is often associated with bone loss. Hence, skeletal changes were also evaluated using micro-computed tomography and histology. MPTP was used as a positive control. Cell culture studies using MC3T3E-1, SHSY5Y, and primary osteoclast cultures were done to understand the cellular mechanism for the behavioral and skeletal changes. Our results showed that CPF treatment leads to PD-like symptoms due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, CPF has a deleterious effect on the trabecular bone through both indirect changes in circulating factors and direct stimulation of multinucleate osteoclast cell formation. The impact on the bone mass was even stronger than MPTP. In conclusion, this is the first report demonstrating that CPF induces parkinsonian features in adult Swiss albino mice and it is accompanied by loss of trabecular bone.
KeywordsChlorpyrifos Parkinson’s disease Osteoporosis Dopamine Osteoclast
This study was supported by CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India, and SERB N-PDF grant. Funding from the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Government of India (K.S.), and the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India (K.S.), is acknowledged. Research fellowship grants from the SERB (S.J.A.), Department of Science and Technology (G.E.), and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (K.P), Government of India, are also acknowledged. We thank Dr. Naibedya Chattopadhyay (CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India) for the μ-CT facility.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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