Advertisement

Neurotoxicity Research

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 645–652 | Cite as

Clinical Usefulness of the Serum Cystatin C Levels in Patients with Transient Ischemic Attack

  • Xiaoyu Dong
  • Jianfei NaoEmail author
Clinical Research Report
  • 32 Downloads

Introduction

Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is characterized by sudden onset neurological impairment lasting < 24 h and is associated with brain or optic nerve ischemia (Dennis et al. 1990). It is a premeditated event that usually indicates a subsequent stroke (Johnston et al. 2000). A number of efforts have been made to predict the risk of eventual acute ischemic stroke (AIS), including the ABCD2 and ABCD3-I scores (the latter combined with brain and carotid imaging results and the ABCCD2 standard score) (Merwick et al. 2010). In addition to these well-defined traditional means of prediction, some serum biomarkers are also associated with a poor prognosis in patients with TIA and may help to detect patients who require urgent treatment at an early stage.

Some serum biomarkers play a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, which is the underlying lesion of TIA. Serum uric acid may promote atherosclerosis in carotid arteries in patients with ischemic stroke...

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Conduct

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Formal consent is not required for this type of study.

References

  1. Acar T, Guzey Aras Y, Gul SS, Acar BA (2018) Can high uric acid levels be an independent risk factor for acute ischemic stroke due to large-artery atherosclerosis? Ideggyogyaszati Szemle-Clin Neurosci 71:279–283.  https://doi.org/10.18071/isz.71.0279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appelros P, Berglund MH, Strom JO (2017) Long-term risk of stroke after transient ischemic attack. Cerebrovasc Dis 43:25–30.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000451061 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arevalo-Lorido JC, Carretero-Gomez J, Robles Perez-Monteoliva NR (2018) Association between serum uric acid and carotid disease in patients with atherosclerotic acute ischemic stroke. Vascular 1708538118797551-1708538118797551.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1708538118797551 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chandratheva A, Geraghty OC, Luengo-Fernandez R, Rothwell PM, Oxford Vasc S (2010) ABCD(2) score predicts severity rather than risk of early recurrent events after transient ischemic attack. Stroke 41:851–856.  https://doi.org/10.1161/strokeaha.109.570010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen W, Pan Y, Jing J, Zhao X, Liu L, Meng X, Wang Y, Wang Y, the CHANCE Investigators, the CHANCE Investigators, Johnston SC, Wang Z, Xia H, Li B, Zhang G, Ren X, Ji C, Zhang G, Li J, Lu B, Wang L, Feng S, Wang D, Tang W, Li J, Zhang H, Li G, Wang B, Chen Y, Lian Y, Liu B, Teng J, Sui R, Li L, Yuan Z, Zang D, Lu Z, Sun L, Wang D, Hou L, Yuan D, Cao Y, Li H, Tan X, Wang H, du H, Liu M, Wang S, Liu Q, Zhang Z, Cui Q, Wang R, Zhao J, Zhang J, Zhao J, Bi Q, Qi X, Liu J, Li C, Li L, Pan X, Zhang J, Jiao D, Han Z, Qian D, Xiao J, Xing Y, du H, Huang G, Cui Y, Li Y, Feng L, Gao L, Xiao B, Cao Y, Wu Y, Liu J, Zhang Z, Dong Z, Wang L, He L, Wang X, Guo X, Wang M, Wang X, Jiang J, Zhao R, Zhou S, Hu H, He M, Yu F, Ouyang Q, Zhang J, Xu A, Qi X, Wang L, Shi F, Guo F, Wang J, Zhao F, Dou R, Wei D, Meng Q, Xia Y, Wang S, Xue Z, Xu Y, Ma L, Wang C, Wu J, Du Y, Wang Y, Xiao L, Song F, Hu W, Chen Z, Liu Q, Zhang J, Chen M, Yuan X, Liu Z, Li G, Li X, Tian T (2017) Recurrent stroke in minor ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack with metabolic syndrome and/or diabetes mellitus. J Am Heart Assoc 6.  https://doi.org/10.1161/jaha.116.005446
  6. Chung YK, Lee YJ, Kim KW, Cho RK, Chung SM, Moon JS, Yoon JS, Won KC, Lee HW (2018) Serum cystatin C is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective study. Diab Vasc Dis Res 15:24–30.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1479164117738156 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Coll E, Botey A, Alvarez L, Poch E, Quintó L, Saurina A, Vera M, Piera C, Darnell A (2000) Serum cystatin C as a new marker for noninvasive estimation of glomerular filtration rate and as a marker for early renal impairment. Am J Kidney Dis 36:29–34.  https://doi.org/10.1053/ajkd.2000.8237 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Davis AE 3rd, Mejia P, Lu F (2008) Biological activities of C1 inhibitor. Mol Immunol 45:4057–4063.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2008.06.028 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Dennis M, Bamford J, Sandercock P, Warlow C (1990) Prognosis of transient ischemic attacks in the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project. Stroke 21:848–853.  https://doi.org/10.1161/01.str.21.6.848 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gonzalez NR, Liebeskind DS, Dusick JR, Mayor F, Saver J (2013) Intracranial arterial stenoses: current viewpoints, novel approaches, and surgical perspectives. Neurosurg Rev 36:175–184; discussion 184–175.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10143-012-0432-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Huang G-x, Ji X-m, Ding Y-c, Huang H-y (2016) Association between serum cystatin C levels and the severity or potential risk factors of acute ischemic stroke. Neurol Res 38:518–523.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2016.1187825 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ishimaru H, Ishikawa K, Ohe Y, Takahashi A, Maruyama Y (1996) Cystatin C and apolipoprotein E immunoreactivities in CA1 neurons in ischemic gerbil hippocampus. Brain Res 709:155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Johnston SC, Gress DR, Browner WS, Sidney S (2000) Short-term prognosis after emergency department diagnosis of TIA. Jama-J Am Med Assoc 284:2901–2906.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.284.22.2901 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kaneko R, Sawada S, Tokita A, Honkura R, Tamura N, Kodama S, Izumi T, Takahashi K, Uno K, Imai J, Yamada T, Miyachi Y, Hasegawa H, Kanai H, Ishigaki Y, Katagiri H (2018) Serum cystatin C level is associated with carotid arterial wall elasticity in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a potential marker of early-stage atherosclerosis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 139:43–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabers.2018.02.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kanhai DA, Visseren FLJ, van der Graaf Y, Schoneveld AH, Catanzariti LM, Timmers L, Kappelle LJ, Uiterwaal CSPM, Lim SK, Sze SK, Pasterkamp G, de Kleijn DPV (2013) Microvesicle protein levels are associated with increased risk for future vascular events and mortality in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease. Int J Cardiol 168:2358–2363.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.01.231 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Knight EL, Verhave JC, Spiegelman D, Hillege HL, De Zeeuw D, Curhan GC, De Jong PE (2004) Factors influencing serum cystatin C levels other than renal function and the impact on renal function measurement. Kidney Int 65:1416–1421.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.00517.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lam WWM, Wong KS, So NMC, Yeung TK, Gao S (2004) Plaque volume measurement by magnetic resonance imaging as an index of remodeling of middle cerebral artery: correlation with transcranial color Doppler and magnetic resonance angiography. Cerebrovasc Dis 17:166–169.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000075786 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Lu S, Xie J, Su C, Ge S, Shi H, Hong X (2018) Plasma homocysteine levels and intracranial plaque characteristics: association and clinical relevance in ischemic stroke. BMC Neurol 18:200.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12883-018-1203-4 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Merwick A, Albers GW, Amarenco P, Arsava EM, Ay H, Calvet D, Coutts SB, Cucchiara BL, Demchuk AM, Furie KL, Giles MF, Labreuche J, Lavallée PC, Mas JL, Olivot JM, Purroy F, Rothwell PM, Saver JL, Sheehan ÓC, Stack JP, Walsh C, Kelly PJ (2010) Addition of brain and carotid imaging to the ABCD(2) score to identify patients at early risk of stroke after transient ischaemic attack: a multicentre observational study. Lancet Neurol 9:1060–1069.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s1474-4422(10)70240-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Ni L, Lü J, Bo Hou L, Tao Yan J, Fan Q, Hui R, Cianflone K, Wang W, Wen Wang D (2007) Cystatin C, associated with hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, is a strong predictor of the risk of cardiovascular events and death in Chinese. Stroke 38:3287–3288.  https://doi.org/10.1161/strokeaha.107.489625 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Oates CP, Naylor AR, Hartshorne T, Charles SM, Fail T, Humphries K, Aslam M, Khodabakhsh P (2009) Joint recommendations for reporting carotid ultrasound investigations in the United Kingdom. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 37:251–261.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2008.10.015 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Oh MY, Lee H, Kim JS, Ryu WS, Lee SH, Ko SB, Kim C, Kim CH, Yoon BW (2014) Cystatin C, a novel indicator of renal function, reflects severity of cerebral microbleeds. BMC Neurol 14:127.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2377-14-127 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Palm DE, Knuckey NW, Primiano MJ, Spangenberger AG, Johanson CE (1995) Cystatin C, a protease inhibitor, in degenerating rat hippocampal neurons following transient forebrain ischemia. Brain Res 691:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pirttila TJ, Pitkanen A (2006) Cystatin C expression is increased in the hippocampus following photothrombotic stroke in rat. Neurosci Lett 395:108–113.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2005.10.091 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Saedon M, Hutchinson CE, Imray CHE, Singer DRJ (2017) ABCD2 risk score does not predict the presence of cerebral microemboli in patients with hyper-acute symptomatic critical carotid artery stenosis. Stroke Vasc Neurol 2:41–46.  https://doi.org/10.1136/svn-2017-000073 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Tejera-Segura B, de Vera-Gonzalez AM, Lopez-Mejias R, Gonzalez-Gay MA, Ferraz-Amaro I (2016) Serum cathepsin S and cystatin C: relationship to subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 34:230–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Tobin KAR, Holven KB, Retterstol K, Strom E, Ose L, Aukrust P, Nenseter MS (2009) Cystatin C levels in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells among hyperhomocysteinaemic subjects: effect of treatment with B-vitamins. Br J Nutr 102:1783–1789.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114509991048 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Umemura T, Kawamura T, Mashita S, Kameyama T, Sobue G (2016) Higher levels of cystatin C are associated with extracranial carotid artery steno-occlusive disease in patients with noncardioembolic ischemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 6:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000443338 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Winovich DT et al (2017) Factors associated with ischemic stroke survival and recovery in older adults. Stroke 48:1818−+.  https://doi.org/10.1161/strokeaha.117.016726 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Xiao D, Liu H, Zhang H, Luo Y (2012) Impact of cystatin C levels on infarct size and hemorrhage volume in acute cerebral stroke. J Neurol 259:2053–2059.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-012-6453-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Yang B, Zhu J, Miao Z, Zhou B, Ge W, Zhao H, Xu X (2015) Cystatin C is an independent risk factor and therapeutic target for acute ischemic stroke. Neurotox Res 28:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12640-015-9522-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Yang S, Cai J, Lu R, Wu J, Zhang M, Zhou X (2017a) Association between serum cystatin C level and total magnetic resonance imaging burden of cerebral small vessel disease in patients with acute lacunar stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 26:186–191.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2016.09.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Yang S, Cai J, Lu R, Wu J, Zhang M, Zhou X (2017b) Association between serum cystatin C level and total magnetic resonance imaging burden of cerebral small vessel disease in patients with acute lacunar stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 26:186–191.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2016.09.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Zeng Q, Lin K, Yao M, Wei L (2015) Significant correlation between cystatin C, cerebral infarction, and potential biomarker for increased risk of stroke. Curr Neurovasc Res 12:40–46.  https://doi.org/10.2174/1567202612666150102150941 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhu Z, Zhong C, Xu T, Wang A, Peng Y, Xu T, Peng H, Chen CS, Wang J, Li Q, Geng D, Sun Y, Li Y, Zhang Y, He J (2018a) Prognostic significance of serum cystatin C in acute ischemic stroke patients according to lipid component levels. Atherosclerosis 274:146–151.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.05.015 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhu Z, Zhong C, Xu T, Wang A, Peng Y, Xu T, Peng H, Chen CS, Wang J, Li Q, Geng D, Sun Y, Li Y, Zhang Y, He J (2018b) Prognostic significance of serum cystatin C in acute ischemic stroke patients according to lipid component levels. Atherosclerosis 274:146–151.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.05.015 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyShengjing Hospital of China Medical UniversityShenyangPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations